Noynoy Aquino's inauguration: The Yang that completes Erap's Yin

I’ve always called politicians “bozos”. And for the record I personally consider Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III a bozo’s bozo. Add me to a box of “witchhunters” then, given this categorical declaration coming from me. Noynoy is in a class of politicians probably occupied by only two men — him and former President Joseph “Erap” Estrada. Between the two of them, they embody 99% of the renowned dysfunction of Filipino culture many of us here have been writing about for the past 10 years.

But whilst Erap represented that perverse machissmo that characterises the misguided aspirations of the average Pinoy male, Noynoy so effectively complements this “macho” persona by representing the emo wussy side of the Filipino — the side that predisposes us to an addiction to melodrama, telenovelas, nauseating romantically-charged ballads, and that world-renowned crybaby victim mentality that served as the bedrock upon which Noynoy’s campaign was mounted.


Noynoy is the Yang that completes Erap’s Yin.

As such, it won’t be hard then to guess what my verdict is on this year’s presidential inauguration — an event that bozo-ism took over.

Between the “sea of yellow”, the alto-voiced odes to 1980’s politics belted out by a cadre of Aquinoist showbiz folk, and that Speech of Perpetual Pandering, I am trying to discern whether seating facilities provided actually consist of Church pews.

Oh, wait, I forgot, this is a presidential inaugural and not a religious service.

So I defer instead to Noynoy’s pal in the Media, the venerable Conrado de Quiros who so adeptly captures in the following excerpt from a recent piece, the spirit of Noynoy’s inaugural ceremony with uncanny precision though written well before the unfolding (as I write this) spectacle:

It was Edsa that birthed you [President Noynoy Aquino], it was Edsa that made you win. It is Edsa you owe your power to and not the brilliance everyone craving a position in your government now claims to have shown in the campaign, a claim refuted by the fact that they have to draw a magnifying glass to it for it to be seen.

Indeed I agree. Noynoy really didn’t have much to do personally with the circumstances he suddenly finds himself surrounded by now. And thus I highlight another one of those amusing ironies that tend to fly over the vacuous minds that make up the Philippine electorate: With every song sang to the high Yellow Heavens by his choir of showbiz angels, a couple of feet are added to the height of that pedestal upon which he is perched. Yet as his artificially-induced stature gets loftier, I have yet to see evidence of Noynoy growing any actual wings.

You had better start working on strapping on your parachute Mr. President or at least get a grip and advise your handlers to stop jacking up that pedestal you are standing on. It’s either that or you find a way to start growing some real wings lest you come across like some sort of male chicken — lots of crowing and and even lots more futile flapping.

* * *


Noynoy is just another bozo who just happened to have walked into our crosshairs and flashed his iconically moronic “L” sign once too often. These are crosshairs that have remained consistently focused on only one thing — aspects of Da Pinoy that account for our chronic inability to prosper as a society. So it’s nothing personal folks. Trabaho lang. Whether or not Noynoy stays within those crosshairs for the next six years is largely up to him.

Congratulations on your inauguration Mr. President. Rest assured, a few commentors on take issue with what they perceive to be a relentless “attack” on you. One of them even likened these to the “lunacy of the Salem Witch Hunt”.

But consider these things first…

(1) Unlike the Salem witch hunters, the Inquisitors, and the Nazis, the ideas of writers on and other “getrealist” blogs are open to critical challenge. Indeed, it is the whole point of the blog format. The comment threads are open and largely free of any moderation on most of our sites.

(2) For much of its nine-year rule, out-going President Gloria Arroyo’s administration was itself subject to a more concerted and well-funded lunacy coming from both the Philippine Media and the cadre of Establishment Bloggers who regularly golfed with this posse.

So far no one has stepped up to mount any convincing rebuttals to the assertions we make here.

Nevertheless, to borrow the quaint words of another one of your pals in the blogosphere:

Godspeed, President Noynoy Aquino.


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167 Responses to Noynoy Aquino's inauguration: The Yang that completes Erap's Yin

  1. J.B. says:

    Given that he’s not corrupt on his own (highly debatable), then the people has no reason to troop to EDSA.

    So this would be a different Yin with which the coming years will unfold.

    At least Erap is convicted plunderer plus reckless in his disposition so the powerful nationalists in Manila can bring him down by overstaying on the streets.

    How do you remedy a possible problem like P. Noy?

    • Hyden Toro says:

      Give the man a chance to prove himself. If his talk is worth to his his task as President. For me, I just watch and see.

  2. Hung Hang says:

    Just for the record, here is a copy of Noynoy’s inaugural speech.

    For those who also want to listen to the speech, you can visit this link.


    Inaugural Speech of President Benigno S. Aquino III in Filipino
    ( Updated June 30, 2010 01:00 PM

    His Excellency Jose Ramos Horta, Former President Fidel V. Ramos, Former President Joseph Estrada, Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile and members of the Senate, House Speaker Prospero Nograles and members of the House, justices of the Supreme Court, members of the foreign delegations,Your Excellencies of the diplomatic corps, fellow colleagues in government, aking mga kababayan.

    Ang pagtayo ko dito ngayon ay patunay na kayo ang aking tunay na lakas. Hindi ko inakala na darating tayo sa puntong ito, na ako’y manunumpa sa harap ninyo bilang inyong Pangulo. Hindi ko pinangarap maging tagapagtaguyod ng pag-asa at tagapagmana ng mga suliranin ng ating bayan.

    Ang layunin ko sa buhay ay simple lang: maging tapat sa aking mga magulang at sa bayan bilang isang marangal na anak, mabait na kuya, at mabuting mamamayan.

    Nilabanan ng aking ama ang diktaturya at ibinuwis niya ang kanyang buhay para tubusin ang ating demokrasya. Inalay ng aking ina ang kanyang buhay upang pangalagaan ang demokrasyang ito. Ilalaan ko ang aking buhay para siguraduhin na ang ating demokrasya ay kapaki-pakinabang sa bawat isa. Namuhunan na kami ng dugo at handang gawin itong muli kung kinakailangan.

    Tanyag man ang aking mga magulang at ang kanilang mga nagawa, alam ko rin ang problema ng ordinaryong mamamayan. Alam nating lahat ang pakiramdam na magkaroon ng pamahalaang bulag at bingi. Alam natin ang pakiramdam na mapagkaitan ng hustisya, na mabalewala ng mga taong pinagkatiwalaan at inatasan nating maging ating tagapagtanggol.

    Kayo ba ay minsan ring nalimutan ng pamahalaang inyong iniluklok sa puwesto? Ako rin. Kayo ba ay nagtiis na sa trapiko para lamang masingitan ng isang naghahari-hariang de-wangwang sa kalsada? Ako rin. Kayo ba ay sawang-sawa na sa pamahalaang sa halip na magsilbi sa taumbayan ay kailangan pa nila itong pagpasensiyahan at tiisin? Ako rin.

    Katulad ninyo ako. Marami na sa atin ang bumoto gamit ang kanilang paa – nilisan na nila ang ating bansa sa kanilang paghahanap ng pagbabago at katahimikan. Tiniis nila ang hirap, sinugod ang panganib sa ibang bansa dahil doon may pag-asa kahit kaunti na dito sa atin ay hindi nila nakikita. Sa iilang sandali na sarili ko lang ang aking inaalala, pati ako ay napag-isip din — talaga bang hindi na mababago ang pamamahala natin dito? Hindi kaya nasa ibang bansa ang katahimikang hinahanap ko? Saan ba nakasulat na kailangang puro pagtitiis ang tadhana ng Pilipino?

    Ngayon, sa araw na ito — dito magwawakas ang pamumunong manhid sa mga daing ng taumbayan. Hindi si Noynoy ang gumawa ng paraan, kayo ang dahilan kung bakit ngayon, magtatapos na ang pagtitiis ng sambayanan. Ito naman ang umpisa ng kalbaryo ko, ngunit kung marami tayong magpapasan ng krus ay kakayanin natin ito, gaano man kabigat.

    Sa tulong ng wastong pamamahala sa mga darating na taon, maiibsan din ang marami nating problema. Ang tadhana ng Pilipino ay babalik sa tamang kalagayan, na sa bawat taon pabawas ng pabawas ang problema ng Pinoy na nagsusumikap at may kasiguruhan sila na magiging tuloy-tuloy na ang pagbuti ng kanilang sitwasyon.

    Kami ay narito para magsilbi at hindi para maghari. Ang mandato ninyo sa amin ay pagbabago — isang malinaw na utos para ayusin ang gobyerno at lipunan mula sa pamahalaang iilan lamang ang nakikinabang tungo sa isang pamahalaang kabutihan ng mamamayan ang pinangangalagaan.

    Ang mandatong ito ay isa kung saan kayo at ang inyong pangulo ay nagkasundo para sa pagbabago — isang paninindigan na ipinangako ko noong kampanya at tinanggap ninyo noong araw ng halalan.

    Sigaw natin noong kampanya: “Kung walang corrupt, walang mahirap.” Hindi lamang ito pang slogan o pang poster — ito ang mga prinsipyong tinatayuan at nagsisilbing batayan ng ating administrasyon.

    Ang ating pangunahing tungkulin ay ang magsikap na maiangat ang bansa mula sa kahirapan, sa pamamagitan ng pagpapairal ng katapatan at mabuting pamamalakad sa pamahalaan.

    Ang unang hakbang ay ang pagkakaroon ng tuwid at tapat na hanay ng mga pinuno. Magsisimula ito sa akin. Sisikapin kong maging isang mabuting ehemplo. Hinding hindi ko sasayangin ang tiwalang ipinagkaloob ninyo sa akin. Sisiguraduhin ko na ganito rin ang adhikain ng aking Gabinete at ng mga magiging kasama sa ating pamahalaan.

    Naniniwala akong hindi lahat ng nagsisilbi sa gobyerno ay corrupt. Sa katunayan, mas marami sa kanila ay tapat. Pinili nilang maglingkod sa gobyerno upang gumawa ng kabutihan. Ngayon, magkakaroon na sila ng pagkakataong magpakitang-gilas. Inaasahan natin sila sa pagsupil ng korapsyon sa loob mismo ng burukrasya.

    Sa mga itinalaga sa paraang labag sa batas, ito ang aking babala: sisimulan natin ang pagbabalik ng tiwala sa pamamagitan ng pag-usisa sa mga “midnight appointments.” Sana ay magsilbi itong babala sa mga nag-iisip na ipagpatuloy ang baluktot na kalakarang nakasanayan na ng marami.

    Sa mga kapuspalad nating mga kababayan, ngayon, ang pamahalaan ang inyong kampeon.

    Hindi natin ipagpapaliban ang mga pangangailangan ng ating mga estudyante, kaya’t sisikapin nating punan ang kakulangan sa ating mga silid-aralan.

    Unti-unti din nating babawasan ang mga kakulangan sa imprastraktura para sa transportasyon, turismo at pangangalakal. Mula ngayon, hindi na puwede ang “puwede na” pagdating sa mga kalye, tulay at gusali dahil magiging responsibilidad ng mga kontratista ang panatilihing nasa mabuting kalagayan ang mga proyekto nila.

    Bubuhayin natin ang programang “emergency employment” ng dating pangulong Corazon Aquino sa pagtatayo ng mga bagong imprastraktura na ito. Ito ay magbibigay ng trabaho sa mga local na komunidad at makakatulong sa pagpapalago ng kanila at ng ating ekonomiya.

    Hindi kami magiging sanhi ng inyong pasakit at perwisyo. Palalakasin natin ang koleksyon at pupuksain natin ang korapsyon sa Kawanihan ng Rentas Internas at Bureau of Customs para mapondohan natin ang ating mga hinahangad para sa lahat, tulad ng:

    · dekalidad na edukasyon, kabilang ang edukasyong bokasyonal para makapaghanap ng marangal na trabaho ang hindi makapag-kolehiyo;

    · serbisyong pangkalusugan, tulad ng Philhealth para sa lahat sa loob ng tatlong taon;

    · tirahan sa loob ng mga ligtas na komunidad.

    Palalakasin at palalaguin natin ang bilang ng ating kasundaluhan at kapulisan, hindi para tugunan ang interes ng mga naghahari-harian, ngunit para proteksyunan ang mamamayan. Itinataya nila ang kanilang buhay para mayroong pagkakataon sa katahimikan at kapayapaan sa sambayanan. Dumoble na ang populasyong kanilang binabantayan, nanatili naman sila sa bilang. Hindi tama na ang nagmamalasakit ay kinakawawa.

    Kung dati ay may fertilizer scam, ngayon ay may kalinga na tunay para sa mga magsasaka. Tutulungan natin sila sa irigasyon, extension services, at sa pagbenta ng kanilang produkto sa pinakamataas na presyong maaari.

    Inaatasan natin si papasok na Kalihim Alcala na magtayo ng mga trading centers kung saan diretso na ang magsasaka sa mamimili — lalaktawan natin ang gitna, kasama na ang kotong cop. Sa ganitong paraan, ang dating napupunta sa gitna ay maari nang paghatian ng magsasaka at mamimili.

    Gagawin nating kaaya-aya sa negosyante ang ating bansa. We will cut red tape dramatically and implement stable economic policies. We will level the playing field for investors and make government an enabler, not a hindrance, to business. Sa ganitong paraan lamang natin mapupunan ang kakulangan ng trabaho para sa ating mga mamamayan.

    Layunin nating paramihin ang trabaho dito sa ating bansa upang hindi na kailanganin ang mangibang-bansa para makahanap ng trabaho. Ngunit habang ito ay hindi pa natin naaabot, inaatasan ko ang mga kawani ng DFA, POEA, OWWA at iba pang mga kinauukulang ahensiya na mas lalo pang paigtingin ang pagtugon sa mga hinaing at pangangailangan ng ating mga overseas Filipino workers.

    Papaigtingin namin ang proseso ng konsultasyon at pag-uulat sa taumbayan. Sisikapin naming isakatuparan ang nakasaad sa ating Konstitusyon na kinikilala ang karapatan ng mamamayan na magkaroon ng kaalaman ukol sa mga pampublikong alintana.

    Binuhay natin ang diwa ng people power noong kampanya. Ipagpatuloy natin ito tungo sa tuwid at tapat na pamamahala. Ang naniniwala sa people power ay nakatuon sa kapwa at hindi sa sarili.

    Sa mga nang-api sa akin, kaya ko kayong patawarin, at pinapatawad ko na kayo. Sa mga nang-api sa sambayanan, wala akong karapatan na limutin ang inyong mga kasalanan.

    To those who are talking about reconciliation, if they mean that they would like us to simply forget about the wrongs that they have committed in the past, we have this to say: there can be no reconciliation without justice. Sa paglimot ng pagkakasala, sinisigurado mong mauulit muli ang mga pagkakasalang ito. Secretary de Lima, you have your marching orders. Begin the process of providing true and complete justice for all.

    Ikinagagalak din naming ibahagi sa inyo ang pagtanggap ni dating Chief Justice Hilario Davide sa hamon ng pagtatatag at pamumuno sa isang Truth Commission na magbibigay linaw sa maraming kahinahinalang isyu na hanggang ngayon ay walang kasagutan at resolusyon.

    Ang sinumang nagkamali ay kailangang humarap sa hustisya. Hindi maaaring patuloy ang kalakaran ng walang pananagutan at tuloy na pang-aapi.

    My government will be sincere in dealing with all the peoples of Mindanao. We are committed to a peaceful and just settlement of conflicts, inclusive of the interests of all — may they be Lumads, Bangsamoro or Christian.

    We shalL defeat the enemy by wielding the tools of justice, social reform, and equitable governance leading to a better life. Sa tamang pamamahala gaganda ang buhay ng lahat, at sa buhay na maganda, sino pa ang gugustuhing bumalik sa panahon ng pang-aapi?

    Kung kasama ko kayo, maitataguyod natin ang isang bayan kung saan pantay-pantay ang pagkakataon, dahil pantay-pantay nating ginagampanan ang ating mga pananagutan.

    Kamakailan lamang, ang bawat isa sa atin ay nanindigan sa presinto. Bumoto tayo ayon sa ating karapatan at konsensiya. Hindi tayo umatras sa tungkulin nating ipaglaban ang karapatang ito.

    Pagkatapos ng bilangan, pinatunayan ninyo na ang tao ang tunay na lakas ng bayan.

    Ito ang kahalagahan ng ating demokrasya. Ito ang pundasyon ng ating pagkakaisa. Nangampanya tayo para sa pagbabago. Dahil dito taas-noo muli ang Pilipino. Tayong lahat ay kabilang sa isang bansa kung saan maaari nang mangarap muli.

    To our friends and neighbors around the world, we are ready to take our place as a reliable member of the community of nations, a nation serious about its commitments and which harmonizes its national interests with its international responsibilities.

    We will be a predictable and consistent place for investment, a nation where everyone will say, “it all works.”

    Inaanyayahan ko kayo ngayon na manumpa sa ating mga sarili, sa sambayanan, WALANG MAIIWAN.

    Walang pangingibang-bayan at gastusan na walang wastong dahilan. Walang pagtatalikod sa mga salitang binitawan noong kampanya, ngayon at hanggang sa mga susunod pang pagsubok na pagdadaanan sa loob ng anim na taon.

    Walang lamangan, walang padrino at walang pagnanakaw. Walang wang-wang, walang counterflow, walang tong. Panahon na upang tayo ay muling magkawang-gawa.

    Nandito tayo ngayon dahil sama-sama tayong nanindigan at nagtiwala na may pag-asa.

    The people who are behind us dared to dream. Today, the dream starts to become a reality. Sa inyong mga nag-iisip pa kung tutulong kayo sa pagpasan ng ating krus, isa lang ang aking tanong — kung kailan tayo nanalo, saka pa ba kayo susuko?

    Kayo ang boss ko, kaya’t hindi maaaring hindi ako makinig sa mga utos ninyo. We will design and implement an interaction and feedback mechanism that can effectively respond to the people’s needs and aspirations.

    Kayo ang nagdala sa akin sa puntong ito — ang ating mga volunteers — matanda, bata, celebrity, ordinaryong tao, na umikot sa Pilipinas para ikampanya ang pagbabago; ang aking mga kasambahay, na nag-asikaso ng lahat ng aking mga personal na pangangailangan; ang aking pamilya, kaibigan at katrabaho, na dumamay, nag-alaga at nagbigay ng suporta sa akin; ang ating mga abogado, na nagpuyat para bantayan ang ating mga boto at siguraduhing mabibilang ang bawat isa; ang aking mga kapartido at kaalyado na kasama kong nangahas mangarap; at ang milyun-milyong Pilipinong nagkaisa, nagtiwala at hindi nawalan ng pag-asa — nasa inyo ang aking taus-pusong pasasalamat.

    Hindi ko makakayang harapin ang aking mga magulang, at kayong mga nagdala sa akin sa yugto ng buhay kong ito, kung hindi ko maisasakatuparan ang aking mga binitawang salita sa araw na ito.

    My parents sought nothing less and died for nothing less than democracy, peace and prosperity. I am blessed by this legacy. I shall carry the torch forward.

    Layunin ko na sa pagbaba ko sa katungkulan, masasabi ng lahat na malayo na ang narating natin sa pagtahak ng tuwid na landas at mas maganda na ang kinabukasang ipapamana natin sa susunod na henerasyon. Samahan ninyo ako sa pagtatapos ng laban na ito. Tayo na sa tuwid na landas.

    Maraming salamat po at mabuhay ang sambayanang Pilipino!

    • benign0 says:

      @Hung Hang: What’s up with the Tagalog? There were foreign dignitaries in attendance!

      • J.B. says:

        He unconsciously copycat Erap during the latter’s inauguration.

      • ChinoF says:

        Anti-foreignism in operation again, seems to me.

      • Lilly says:

        And just when most of our currently thriving industries rely on getting foreign investors. How’s that for undoing what little good GMA did?

      • FLATRON says:

        Probably cause..there are more Filipinos watching? I mean some or most Filipinos aren’t really that good in English..I think it would be more important for Filipinos to know these stuff…

      • Dee says:

        I think the use of Tagalog was just appropriate because the inauguration is an important event in Philippine history, so it makes sense to use our native language. The event is for the Filipino people and watched by mostly Filipinos. Foreign representatives can get translation. I don’t think the nationalistic atmosphere of such event should be sacrificed just so we could accommodate a few foreigners who don’t speak Filipino.

      • Lorenz says:

        agreed. those who scream anti-foreignism just because of this is, no offense, stupid if you ask me. Do you expect the next Prime Minister of Japan to speak English in his inauguration when there are foreigner leaders? Do you expect this in many other countries that do not natively speak English?

        He who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and smelly fish.
        Jose Rizal


      • ChinoF says:

        “He who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and smelly fish.
        Jose Rizal”

        I love my own language.



      • melissa says:

        “He who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and smelly fish.
        Jose Rizal” <<<< in English

      • Lorenz says:

        hahaha go on ahead thinking you are all Americans or British when in fact you aren’t and you’ll never be.

        While a people preserves its language; it preserves the marks of liberty.
        Jose Rizal

        And oh it’s not known what language Jose Rizal used in saying these quotes. It may be just translated to English.

      • ChinoF says:

        Thing is, if he’s after foreign investments and wants a more globalized economy, delivering the speech in English is one of the signs that he is interested in it. Delivering it in Tagalog is a sign of looking solely inward, that Filipinos are expected to isolate themselves from foreigners and develop the economy on their own. Thing is, how can they be expected to develop the economy when a lot of them are poor?

        Given that the language of the speech is a non-issue, I still feel a sense of anti-foreignism from the new administration that will drag our country down even more.

      • ChinoF says:

        Didn’t Rizal write that language quote in Spanish and not in Tagalog? He wrote Fili and Noli in Spanish, not in Tagalog.

      • Lorenz says:

        oh i agree with you there chino. the aquino administration will likely be inefficient when it comes to attracting investments. but basing the anti-foreignism by the use of the national language of the inauguration of the president instead of english is rather silly.

        even foreign leaders would expect it to be in our national language. besides, the speech is just a speech nothing more. political speeches are ahem useless after all especially when it comes to business.

        action speaks louder than words anyone?

      • ChinoF says:

        Does loving English make me an American or British? Nah. I’m a Filipino who just loves English. Also, that Rizal quote is often used, but we have to understand the context it was stated in. Rizal may have been speaking to some blowhard pretending to know a higher language, but is arrogant, and is thus a smelly fish.

        Besides, there’s still the dispute on the national language, because Tagalog was made the national language in part because of Wenceslao Vinzons’ work. But some people say Tagalog is only the language of one tribe. What about their Bisaya, Hiligaynon, Waray, Ilocano, Ilonggo, and others? I’m of the opinion that we don’t have a national language at all.

      • ChinoF says:

        Oh, the above comment of mine was being typed while you posted your last response, Lorenz, so I guess I can drop the language discussion too. Maybe we can continues this into another thread sometime. In the Forums, perhaps?

      • Lorenz says:

        I love English too as i read novels and am a bookworm. When you hold English higher over your own language, that becomes different.

        Look at China, it also has many languages yet they have to have one and Standard Mandarin was most likely chosen because it is the one spoken in Beijing or other past dynasties, republics. i am not sure. look it up at google. china has so many dialects too.

      • May Party Sa Dasma Wala Akong Wheels says:

        I love English too as i read novels and am a bookworm. When you hold English higher over your own language, that becomes different.

        (emphasis mine)
        So if I happen to be someone who got a knack for English right out of my schooling years then there is something wrong with me? I think not. Other factors come in, like how well Filipino was taught in school and how much the school emphasized its use over English, the language used in the television programs watched when we were at home, the sort of publications we had lying around, the language we practiced with friends, etc. I had English on most of those. Doesn’t mean I give a hoot any less about speaking Tagalog. I just happen to think in English as well.

        Anyway, Noynoy using Tagalog matters little to me. What got my attention is how his pandering on the people bringing him there, is just euphemism for “don’t blame me if I fail because this was all YOUR idea.” He hasn’t even begun and already he calls it his “kalbaryo.” I don’t care if somebody else wrote his speech; if he spoke it, he owns it.

      • BongV says:

        in case you forgot – Rizal wrote mainly in Spanish – not Tagalog, bloody dumbasses 😆

      • ilda says:

        “He who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and smelly fish.

        Well, Rizal did not specify if it was Tagalog or some other dialect in the Philippine language he was referring to and he is not here anymore to clarify his statement.

        Besides, just because Rizal is our national hero, it does not mean that he was always right. It is so obvious that Tagalog in not the only language Filipinos are comfortable with. And it is so obvious that the exclusive use of Tagalog will not even unite us as a people.

      • BongV says:
        lorenz: there’s no such thing as “pure filipino” get over it ——— Created in 1946 – the result of a series of negotiations conducted between Filipino nationalists and the U.S. government – the Republic of the Philippines is an arbitrary amalgamation of a multitude of diverse islands and peoples. This political entity is not a nation-state; neither is it a voluntary multinational association. Rather, it constitutes a new, post World War II, colonial order centered in Manila, and dedicated to the political and economic hegemony of the local Christian-Europhile community over the entire territory of the former American colony. That which separates the Philippines from all other multi-ethnic states in Asia is its unique nationalism. Although distinct Cambodian, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tibetan, and Thai countries had emerged by the time of the onslaught of European imperialism in Asia during the late 19th century, there never existed a Filipino nation. While other heterogeneous Asian countries can seek to legitimate the existence of their states by declaring a continuity – however dubious – with indigenous kingdoms or empires that flourished in their lands before European domination, Filipino nationalists cannot. No single political entity ever ruled the entire archipelago, and those states which did arise to govern significant portions of these islands, including the area around Manila, were Muslim. Unlike other Asian nationalisms, for Filipinos history is an enemy, not an ally. The Nations Within Filipino nationalism is an artificial, non-Asian construct with no existence prior to and separate from the Spanish invasion of 1565. The extent of its dependency on European colonialism for its very identity is seen by the nationalists embrace of The Philippines as the name for their country, a name given to the islands by the Spanish in 1542 in honor of King Philip II of Spain – a tyrant, and a racial and religious bigot. Originally, Filipino nationalism did not even seek independence for the Philippines but rather its complete cultural assimilation and total political integration into Spain. The goal was equal representation with “the other parts of Spain” in the Cortes at Madrid. To these Filipino nationalists, Filipinos were just eastern Spaniards, as Majorcans were western” Spaniards, as Andalusians were southern” Spaniards. Only when this aspiration failed to be realized did the objective of Filipino nationalists shift to political independence – but not to decolonize. If they could not be an integral part of Spain, then the Philippines would constitute a second Spain – one which would complete the hispanization of the islands. The commitment to this non-Asian identity is so intense that in 1962 then President Macapagal warmly embraced the suggestion of Spain’s dictator, Generalissimo Franco, that the Philippines should initiate the creation of a political-cultural bloc consisting exclusively of states sharing a common Spanish- Catholic heritage. As a result, Filipino nationalists view the rest of Asia with ambivalence and as somewhat alien. Like Israeli and Afrikaan nationalisms, Filipino nationalism considers itself as culturally and spiritually separate from, and in fact superior to, the region and peoples in which it is geographically situated. The failure of the Philippines to develop into the Southeast Asian showcase for democracy and economic growth which was anticipated for it by both Filipino and U.S. politicians is a direct consequence of this nationalism. For the indigenous nations in the Philippines, especially, the Igorots and the Moros, this assumed nationalism has endangered their continued cultural and physical survival. A part of the Malay, or East Indian, Archipelago – which reaches from Southeast Asia to Australia – the Philippines consist of more than 7,100 islands with a total land mass of 115,831 square miles. Stretching 1,000 miles from north to south, these islands are commonly divided into three distinct regions: Luzon in the north (the largest island totaling 40,420 square miles) with the smaller islands to its north, Mindanao in the south (the second largest island with 36,537 square miles) and the lesser islands to its south in the Sulu archipelago – sometimes including Palawan, all the islands in between are collectively referred to as the Visayas. According to government estimates, the country’s population numbers 56,808,000 (1985) with a projected annual growth rate of 2.5% (1983). This population is unevenly distributed throughout the state with the heaviest concentration and most rapid growth rate in central-southern Luzon and the country’s urban areas. These constitute the heartland and strongholds of Filipino nationalism respectively. Fifty Peoples and Three Loose Confederations The population is overwhelmingly Malay with significant Chinese, European, and indigenous Dumagat and Negrito minorities. This image of an apparent homogeneous Malay nation, however, is shattered by the reality of over 50 peoples speaking 90 languages and dialects, and professing rival religions: Christianity, Islam, and Animism. These three faiths have molded the disparate communities into not one nation, but three – Filipino, Moro, and Igorot, respectively. Among the Filipinos, eight peoples account for 90% of the total population. These are: Cebuano The largest community, they are located in the central Visayas and eastern Mindanao. Tagalog The second largest group, they’re located in central Luzon and the Manila environs. Their language is the basis of the official state language, Filipino. Waray-Waray Both are located in the central Visayas. Ilongo These people are located on the northwestern coast of Luzon. Ilocanos These people are located on the northwestern coast of Luzon. Bicol They are located in the southern peninsula of Luzon. Pampangan They are located in west-central Luzon. Pangasian This group is located around the Gulf of Lingayen in northwestern Luzon. Of the 7 million indigenous peoples in the Philippines – groups which have not been Christianized or Hispanicized – the Moros and the Igorots are the two most important because of their numerical size, demographic concentration, and political organization. There are twelve peoples whose shared religion, Islam, and shared historical experience, persecution by Spaniards and later Filipinos, have formed a distinct nation called the Bangsamoro. But they are better known by the name the Spaniards gave them, Moros – meaning Moors or Muslims. Originally, Spaniards and Filipinos used the word Moro as a term of contempt for the Muslims of Basilan, Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu archipelago. “Moro,” the Badge of Honor Moro was a synonym for barbarism and inferiority. Now it has become a badge of honor embraced by the Muslims to identify themselves and their nation. The Moros, who number between 2 – 5 million, consist of the following peoples with the first four communities representing 98% of the total population: Maguindanaos “People of th Flooded Plain,” one of the largest groups, they live along the Cotabato River in Mindanao. Maranaos-Ilanun “People of the Lake,” they are located around Lake Lanao in Mindanao. Historically, these Muslims hve been the most fragmented with numerous, small, rival sultanates and principalities the predominate political feature. Tausaugs “People of the Current,” they are located in the Sulu archipelago principally on the islands of Jolo, Siasi, Tapul, and Lugus. Samals They are located in the Sulu archipelago primarily on the island of Tawi-Tawi. The Samals also inhabit protinos of Siasi, Jolo Laminusa, Tandubas, Tabawan, Unggus, Matata, Simuni, and the Tongkil group of islands. Badjaos They are located in the Sulu archipelago and are called “Sea Gypsies” because of their migration from island to island in order to avaid conflicts. Yakans They are located on Basilan Island. Sangils They are located around the Gulf of Davao in southern Mindanao. Malebugnons They live on Balabac Island. Jama Mapuns They inhabit Cagayan Island. Muslim Palawani They are located on Palawan Island. Kalagan They reside around the Gulf of Davao in southern Mindanao. Kalibugan They are located in western Mindanao around the shores of the Moro Gulf. The Igorot of Luzon Igorot is a Tagalog word for “mountain people” and denotes the inhabitants of the mountains of central Luzon. Like the word Moro, Igorot had a derogatory connotation implying backwardness and cultural inferiority. And like the word Moro, it has become a source of pride to its members – designating an identity distinct from Filipino. Among the 800,000 Igorots, there are seven major peoples: Apayao, Tinggian, Kalinga, Bontoc, Ifugao, Kankanai, and Ibaloi. The ancestors of today’s Igorots originally were low-landers who immigrated to the mountains of central Luzon centuries ago in two distinct waves. The first wave occurred before the arrival of the Spanish when people from the coastal lowlands went to the mountains in search of additional sources of food, and water, and for tradable commodities such as lumber and gold. Once there they stayed. The second and larger wave of immigrants arrived as refugees fleeing the Spanish conquest and subsequent rule. Despite repeated attempts over three centuries to conquer them, the Spaniards were never able to dominate the peoples of the mountains politically or culturally. During those centuries, while a Filipino political identity was in the process of being created, for the Christian low-landers, a separate identity was emerging among the mountain people. This political identity eventually was to adopt the label “Igorot.” When the low-landers started their revolution again in 1898, the Igorots initially supported the Philippine independence movement. An independent Philippines appeared to offer an end to repeated military incursions into their mountain homeland, and to extend the promise of equality and respect for all nations. By its mistreatment of the Igorots, however, the Filipino revolutionary government quickly demonstrated that it was no different from the former, imperial regime. As a result, war broke out between the Igorots and the Filipinos, thus reinforcing separate national identities. War ended when the U.S. took effective control of the region in 1902, and expelled all Filipino revolutionaries from the mountains. Recognizing that a difference existed between the two nations, Washington officially established the Mountain Province for the Igorots by the Philippine Commission Act No. 1876 on August 18, 1912. The province consisted of seven sub-provinces delineated generally along national lines: Amburayan, Apayao, Benguet, Bontoc, Ifugao, Kalinga, and Lepanto. During the American occupation of the Mountain Province, the U.S. authorities opened new roads which aided trade and communications among the Igorots, established an elementary educational system, and introduced modern health measures. Despite these propitious beginnings, Washington failed the Igorots. The educational system became the monopoly of Catholic and Protestant missionaries from the U.S. and from Europe, and Education a pretext for religious evangelization. The Igorots were subjected to religious harassment at the hands of these “unrequested mentors.” Worse was the decision by the U.S. government to deny the Igorots the right to national self-determination. The Igorots were to be a part of the Philippines regardless of their wishes. Washington assumed, erroneously, that Igorot rights and national identity would be protected by the legal existence of the Mountain Province. This was a legality which Washington also mistakenly believed Manila would respect. But Filipino nationalism is predicated upon the Filipinization of all tribal peoples, and the colonization of their lands. After obtaining home-rule under the Jones Law in 1916, Filipino politicians began to nibble away at the borders of the Mountain Province. During the 1920s, Manila’s gerrymandering awarded Amburayan, and large parts of Lepanto and Benguet to the Filipino provinces of La Union, Ilocos Sur, and Abra. By the 1930s, Filipino politicians were attacking the very concept of the Mountain Province. Arguing that it endangered the “national unity” of the Philippines by politically unifying the non-Christian peoples of the mountains of northern Luzon, they demanded the partition of the Mountain Province. Supported by the recently elected President, Ferdinand Marcos, the opposition parties, and the church, Republic Act No. 4695 became law on June 18, 1966. By this legislation, the Mountain Province was partitioned into four, separate provinces: Benguet, Ifugao, Kalinga-Apayao, and a truncated Mountain Province. Later in 1972, after the declaration of martial law, Marcos further attacked Igorot unity by bifurcating these four provinces. With the proclamation of Presidential Decree Number One, Integrated Reorganization Plan, 12 larger, administrative units were created called Regions. Benguet and the rump Mountain Province were assigned to Region I, while Ifugao and Kalinga- Apayao were placed in Region II. By such gerrymandering, Manila sought first to effectively exploit the rich mineral deposits, such as gold, and the other valuable natural resources contained in the mountains. Secondly, these measures attempt to facilitate Filipino colonization of Igorot lands. Aquino Government continutes Past Polices Despite repeated assertions that her government respects human rights, President Cory Aquino has not reestablished the Mountain Province within its 1912 borders. The Igorots remain divided among 4 provinces and 2 regions. Similarly, the President has not removed all the Filipino colonists from the lands of the Igorots. Unfortunately, Mrs. Aquino is no different from Mr. Marcos or any other Filipino nationalist. In their opinion, the Philippine state is for the exclusive benefit of Filipinos, and the best thing for tribal peoples to do is to assimilate as quickly as possible. Without consistent, external pressure being exerted upon Manila to allow the Igorots the right to national self-determination, the Philippine government – under Aquino or any other Filipino administration – will continue to dispossess the Igorots of their lands, their culture, their national identity, and their future. A thousand miles to the south are the Moros of Basilan, Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago. For 400 years, these people have defended their homeland against foreign invaders – Spaniards, Americans, Japanese, and now Filipinos. Moro history dramatically reveals the illegitimacy of the “national borders” of the Philippines. Since they are a part of the Islamic World, the Moros can draw upon the solidarity of half-a-billion co-religionists and the political support of dozens of independent Muslim states. These are resources which the Igorots lack. To Manila, therefore, of all the tribal groups the Moros pose the most serious threat to the Filipino state. While the Igorots lived in remote villages scattered throughout their mountain homeland, isolated from the larger world, the Moros resided in powerful Muslim states with cultural and trading contacts stretching from Arabia to China. By the 16th Century, four Moro states had emerged: the Sultanate of Sulu, the Sultanate of Maguindanao, the Bauyan Sultanate, and the apat na Pangampong. Although each was a distinct political entity exercising sovereignty over specific territory, all four states were interconnected and interrelated by a common religion – Islam, by shared customs and traditions, and through intermarriage among the royal families. Moros Test State’s Borders The diplomatic and legal history of the Moros present the most immediate danger to the credibility and viability of the state’s borders. During the Spanish-American War of 1898, all three competing powers – Aquinaldo’s revolutionary government, the Kingdom of Spain, and the U.S. government – acknowledged that the Moros were not part of the Philippines. After the Spanish forces were defeated, hostilities erupted between the U.S. and Aquinaldo’s army. In his search for allies, Aquinaldo’s government – a body overwhelmingly Tagalog in composition with absolutely no representatives from Basilan, Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago – negotiated, unsuccessfully, with the Moros for a military alliance against the Americans. By the act of these negotiations, as well as by the address of the appeal, Aquinaldo officially recognized that the Moros were separate from “his government” and from the Philippines. During the peace negotiations conducted between Madrid and Washington to formally terminate the war and resolve colonial issues, Spain – contrary to earlier pronouncements – officially declared that Moroland, Basilan, Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu archipelago, was not part of her colony of the Philippines. Although the final draft of the peace treaty which Madrid did sign provided for the sale of the Philippines, including Moroland, to the United States for 20 million Mexican dollars, President William McKinley had doubts as to Spain’s legal right to dispose of Moroland. He, therefore, instructed the Schurman Commission – the first U.S. government body to administer the Philippines – to investigate the legal status of the Moros. If it was determined that the Moros were independent of the Philippines, bilateral treaties were to be negotiated especially with the Sultanate of Sulu. A commercial treaty had already existed between the U.S. and Sulu since 1842. The result was the Bates Treaty. Negotiated between two, equal, sovereign states – the United States and the Sultanate of Sulu – the treaty was signed on August 20, 1899. This was eight months after the Treaty of Paris had been signed ending the Spanish-American War. By this document – which officially states that any subsequent changes to the treaty could only occur by mutual consent – Washington officially acknowledged that the Moros were not part of the Philippines and specifically guaranteed to respect the identity and the integrity of the Sulu Sultanate. In return, the sultan recognized U.S. sovereignty. On March 21, 1904, the U.S. government unilaterally, and illegally, abrogated the Bates Treaty. The sultan responded by officially expressing his surprise and sadness by Washington’s action. The abrogation of the Bates Treaty provoked a war with the Moros which lasted until 1913. The subsequent Carpenter Agreement of 1915 by which the Sultan of Sulu formally relinquished all political authority was illegal as it was signed under American military coercion. This document, however, relinquished political power only to the United States government not to the Philippines. The army which the Moros placed in the field consisted of irregular bands. Although highly motivated – they were defending their families, their lands, and their faith – the Moros, unlike the U.S. forces, were ill-equipped, lacked effective leadership, and operated without any military or political coordination. Notable among the insurrections were those of: the Panglimas Hasan and Maharadja Andung in Sulu, the Datus of Maciu, Binidayan, and Taraca in Lanao, Mindanao, the Datu Ali in Cotabato, Mindanao, and the leaders of the Footmen Uprising in Palawan. Through a combination of superior firepower and “candy and chocolate diplomacy,” the U.S. defeated the Moro guerrillas. Once pacification was achieved, Washington initiated programs designed to politically integrate and culturally assimilate the Moros into the Philippines. 1913 – The governing Philippine Commission was reconstituted with a Filipino majority. 1913 – The Moro Province which had been established in 1903 with an administration, budget, and constabulary separate from the Philippines was abolished. 1914 – The Moro Constabulary which was officiated by Americans and staffed by Moros was abolished. 1914 – Filipino colonists began to be settled in Moroland. 1915 – The Carpenter Agreement. 1916 – Washington passed the Jones Law (Public Act No. 240) which promised Filipino nationalists the future independence of the Philippines, including the Moroland, and provided for the establishment of local government by a Philippine legislature in Manila. 1916 – The new Philippine legislature, with no elected Moro representatives, extended all Filipino laws to Moroland. 1916 – The Philippine legislature uprooted the American administration in Moroland creating in its place governorships, judgeships, public prosecutors, a civil service bureaucracy, a constabulary, and an educational system staffed by Filipinos. 1916 – Using the power of confirmation conferred on it by the Jones Law, the Philippine legislature insured that only Filipinos were appointed government positions in Moroland. 1917 – Creation of the Bureau of non-Christian tribes under the direct control of Filipinos. 1920 – The department of Mindanao and Sulu abolished. American supervision of Moroland terminated. The Philippine legislature assumes administrative control of the Moros. The Moros reacted to these developments. On June 9, 1921, fifty-seven Muslim leaders met in Sulu and signed a petition which was addressed to Manila and Washington, D.C. After enumerating numerous acts of Filipino discrimination against Moros, the signatories formally requested that the Sulu archipelago be separated from the Philippines and annexed to the United States. The petition and grievances were ignored. Revolts against Filipino colonialism soon erupted: in Lanao in 1923, in Cotabato in 1923-24, and in Agusan in 1924. Between 1900-1941, there were 41 revolts throughout Moroland against first U.S., and then Filipino colonialism. In 1924, Moro leaders again appealed to Washington for redress and sent a Declaration of Rights and Purposes to the U.S. Congress. This document requested a separate political status for Moroland as an unincorporated American territory. It offered to hold a plebiscite 50 years after the Philippines had gained its independence to determine the wishes of the Moros. Under the proposed referendum, the Moros would be able to choose union with the Philippines, continuation as an American territory, or independence. Should the Philippines, however, be granted independence without first providing for Moroland remaining an American possession, the Moros would declare unilateral independence. Two years later the U.S. Congress officially had this declaration read into the Congressional Record. Responding to the mounting political violence – 124 conflicts between Moros and the Filipino Constabulary in seven years – Congressman Robert Bacon of New York introduced House Bill No. 12772 on May 6, 1926 calling for a separate political administration for Moroland, independent of the Philippines. This bill was defeated by the pro-Filipino lobby. In 1927, another Moro revolt occurred against Filipino oppression this time in Sulu. The U.S. Congress continued to ignore the underlying causes for the violence and addressed the matter as a “breakdown in law and order.” In 1934, the Tydings-McDuffie Law (Public Act No. 127) was passed by the U.S. Congress authorizing Filipinos to write their own constitution. In response to this law, 200 Moro leaders sent a letter to the Governor-General, Frank Murphy, dated July 13, 1934. In this letter, the signatories requested that in its deliberations the forthcoming constitutional convention formally respect Islam, protect Moro culture and traditions, honor Moro land rights, appoint Moros to government positions in Lanao, and preserve the development projects introduced by the Americans. If these requests were not embodied in the proposed constitution, then the Moros were not interested in being a part of the Philippines. A constitutional convention was duly held by Filipino nationalists who hand-picked all the “Mindanao representatives” to insure the proper appearance of “national consensus.” At the same time, a rival Moro congress was held at Dansalan (Marawi City), Mindanao on March 18, 1935. One hundred twenty datus were in attendance. The Congress issued a declaration reiterating Moro opposition to being included in the Philippines. A formal letter was sent by the delegates to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt explaining the Moro position and officially requesting a separate political status for Moroland. Again, they were ignored. In 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was formally established. Under the Quezon administration an escalation of Filipino colonization of Moroland commenced. Filipino objectives were succinctly stated in two declarations: The Organic Charter of Organized Land Settlement of 1935 proclaimed: . . . land settlement work is the only government policy that will furnish effective solution to the Mindanao problem . . ., [and President Quezon’s address to the First National Assembly on June 16, 1936 announced] . . . the time has come when we should systematically proceed with and bring about the colonization and economic development of Mindanao . . . . This resettlement program concentrated on dispossessing the Moros of the rich, fertile lands of Davao, Cotabato, and Lanao. A corollary to resettlement was the reduction, and eventually curtailment, of economic programs for the Moros initiated by the U.S. Future projects were for the exclusive benefit of Filipino colons. According to a 1971 report by the Philippine Senate Committee on National Minorities, no irrigation projects had been constructed in any municipality on Mindanao which had a Muslim majority. All of this provoked a five-year insurrection by the Moros of Lake Lanao – from June 1936 to 1941. At the same time, Manila launched a concerted attack on the legal protections which had been afforded the Moros by the U.S. government. The Administrative Code for Mindanao and Sulu which permitted flexibility in the application of Filipino laws so as to respect Moro culture was abolished. The Moro Board of the office of the Governor of Lanao which provided for the settling of Moro civil and religious disputes according to Islamic law and Moro customary law was abolished. Official recognition of the titles of the Moro nobility [the community’s civil leaders] was rescinded. A State is Invented and Colonization Continues On July 4, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated with Moroland as part of the new state. Moroland consists of approximately 117,000 square kilometers or 38% of the state’s territory. Manila now resumed the colonization of Mindanao which had been interrupted by World War II. The Hukbalahap Rebellion was defeated, in part, by Manila resettling landless Huks in Mindanao. In 1951, the Moros of Sulu, led by Mass Kamlon, revolted against Philippine rule. The insurrection lasted five years. Unsettled by this event, the Philippine legislature sought to resolve the Moro Problem once and for all. To this end, Republic Act No. 1888 established the Commission on National Integration with the stated purpose “. . . to render real, complete, and permanent the integration of said minorities into the body politic . . . .” This goal presupposed that all subordinate peoples, especially the Moros and the Igorots, shall eventually be forced to become Christian. The Commission did not resolve the Moro Problem. Tensions increased as Moros continued to seek national self-determination, and Filipinos continued to deny this to them. In 1961, Ombra Amilbangsa, a member of the Philippine legislature and, himself, a descendant of the sultans of Sulu, introduced House Bill No. 5682 which called for the reestablishment of Sulu as an independent country. The bill was rejected by the Filipino Congress. Later that same year, the Hajal Ouh Movement arose seeking to reestablish an independent state for the Moros of Sulu, Basilan, and Zamboanga by means of a war of national liberation. Before it could effectively organize, the government of the Philippines crushed the movement, killing the leader Hajal Ouh. The current phase of the Moro struggle can be traced to two events which occurred in 1968. On March 18th of that year, there was the Corregidor Incident in which the government of the Philippines murdered a number of Muslim army recruits – accounts vary between 28 and 68 – who refused to participate in Operation Merdeka or Jabidah. This was a top-secret project by which Manila hoped to end its territorial dispute with Malaysia over North Borneo (Sabah Province, Malaysia) by militarily invading and annexing the land. It was only because one soldier, Jibin Arula, survived and told his story to the opposition party governor of Cavite, Delfin Montano, that the public was made aware of the massacre. Investigations, which lasted until 1971, were conducted by both the Philippine legislature and the Philippine military. In the end, of the 23 officers indicted, none was incarcerated. In response to the Jabidah Massacre, two Moro nationalist parties were created: the Muslim (later renamed Mindanao) Independence Movement (MIM), and the Moro National Liberation Front (M.N.L.F.). Both organizations sought political independence for Moroland – Basilan, Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu archipelago. The MIM was officially founded on May 1, 1968 by the former governor of Cotabato province, Datu Udtog Matalam. Although the movement claimed to speak for all Moros, it never expanded beyond the province of Cotabato. The failure of Matalam to organize MIM into an active, pan-Moro party or to develop a concrete political platform, lead to suspicions that the datu was using the movement as a bargaining chip with Manila to advance his personal career. Earlier in March a group of Muslim intellectuals and students residing in Manila had founded the Moro National Liberation Front. One of the founding members of the M.N.L.F. was Nur Misuari, the current chairman of the party. During the 1970s, the M.N.L.F. would emerge as the preeminent Moro military force and be internationally recognized by the Organization of the Islamic Conference as the sole, legitimate representative of the Bangsamoro people. The second event which occurred in 1968 was the emergence of Filipino terrorists known as Ilaga, an Ilongo word meaning rat. Motivated by religious bigotry and greed, the Ilagas began to attack Moros with impunity. These colons viewed the Moros as an alien and inferior community who posed a danger to the Philippine state. Through acts of violence, the Ilagas hoped to accomplish several objectives: to retaliate against the Moros for demanding national self-determination, to intimidate the Moros into abandoning future political activity, to expel the minority Moro population from Filipino majority provinces in Mindanao, and most importantly, to dispossess the Moro majority elsewhere in Mindanao of much of their remaining homeland. The failure of the MIM to respond adequately to the llagas contributed to the final demise of that party. The M.N.L.F. reacted to the terrorism by preparing for a war of national liberation. This was launched on October 21, 1972 – shortly after Marcos had imposed martial law – with an armed insurrection in Marawi City. So successful were the guerrillas in seizing military control of the city, it took the superior firepower of the Philippine armed forces 24 hours to recapture the municipality. Although cruder and overwhelmingly more overtly violent, the llaga was a natural extension of official Filipino nationalism. Their terrorism was aided and abetted by 7 municipal mayors, 3 provincial governors, the Philippine Constabulary, and the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Just how intimate the relationship was between Manila and the llagas became apparent after Marcos declared martial law. While Moros were disarmed, the llagas were allowed to keep possession of their weapons and were quickly given official, legal status as the Civil Home Defense Force. By 1975, the now legally sanitized llagas (Civil Home Defense Force) numbered approximately 35,000. Moro and Manila War for a Generation Since 1972 a war has raged between the M.N.L.F. and the government of the Philippines. In 1973, as the violence escalated, Muslim countries became increasingly concerned over the plight of their co-religionists. As a result, during the Fourth Islamic Foreign Ministers’ Conference held in Benghazi, Libya in March of that year, the Organization of the Islamic Conference established the Quadripartite Ministerial Commission. This four power commission, consisting of Libya, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, and Somalia, was authorized to investigate the causes of the Moro War and to make recommendations to the O.I.C. on possible solutions. At the Fifth Islamic Foreign Ministers’ Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in June 1974, the O.I.C. formally adopted Resolution 18. This official document embodied the commission’s conclusions: the causes of the Moro War were political, direct negotiations should be conducted between the M.N.L.F. and Manila, and the political settlement should provide for Moro autonomy within the framework of the Philippine state – not independence as had been advocated by the M.N.L.F. Under diplomatic pressure from the O.I.C., the threat of an oil embargo by Islamic oil producing countries, and an unsatisfactory military situation, the Marcos regime entered into negotiations with the M.N.L.F. The talks between the two belligerents were conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during January 1975. They failed to reach an accord and were broken off. A second round of talks held in December 1976 in Tripoli, Libya produced the Tripoli Agreement. By this accord, the M.N.L.F., under pressure from the OIC, agreed to political autonomy within the Philippine state – not independence – for a Moroland much reduced in territorial size. The new borders comprised 13 provinces, instead of 22, or only 60% of the historic homeland of the Moros. The treaty was explicit: A political autonomous Moro region was to be established consisting of 13 provinces in the southwest and all the cities and villages located within them (Paragraph 2). The Moro autonomous region was to possess a legislative assembly and executive council (Paragraph 3, Article 9). An administrative system (Paragraph 3, Article 5). Its own financial and economic system (Paragraph 3, Article 6). A separate Special Regional Security Force (Paragraph 3, Article 8). The right to establish an educational system of schools, colleges, and universities (Paragraph 3, Article 4). The right to Islamic courts (Paragraph 3, Article 3). A provisional government was to be instituted to oversee elections to the legislative assembly and administer the region until the elected legislators had formed a government (Paragraph 3, Article 15). During this transitional period, a mixed commission was to be created composed of representatives from the Philippine government, the M.N.L.F., and the O.I.C. to supervise an immediate cease-fire (Paragraph 3, Article 12). Displaying greater political skills than his adversaries, and more fidelity to his objectives than the O.I.C. demonstrated for the Moro cause, Marcos destroyed the Tripoli Agreement within four months. By publicly sowing confusion as to what were the exact terms of the accord, the President of the Philippines prompted further negotiations between his administration and Colonel Qaddafi and the O.I.C. These negotiations effectively excluded the M.N.L.F. from participation. By the wording of the resulting reaffirmations to the Tripoli Agreement, Marcos extracted “three clarifications” which doomed the accord to extinction. First, a referendum was to be held on the implementation of the Tripoli Agreement. Second, the agreed to Moro autonomous region became the autonomous regions of the Southern Philippines. Third, the President of the Philippines was to appoint the provisional government. Moro Autonomy Non-Negotiable With these concessions, Marcos issued Proclamation No. 1628 on Declaring Autonomy in Southern Philippines. In conformity with this document, the President of the Philippines appointed all 7 members of the Provisional government including the M.N.L.F. representatives. Such an act was contrary to the understanding of the other parties and lead to the M.N.L.F. boycotting this puppet government. More ominous were the last paragraphs of the proclamation. They declared that the referendum would determine how the areas were to be administered. This was not in agreement with the letter or the intent of the Tripoli Agreement. Moro autonomy was nonnegotiable. Only certain aspects of the administration of the Moro autonomous region could be subject to a referendum – not the existence of the autonomous region itself. Manila assured both Qaddafi and the O.I.C. that the approaching April 17, 1977 referendum would conform to the Tripoli Agreement and ask only those specific questions agreed to by the contracting parties. Marcos lied. Most of the questions placed on the referendum were irrelevant and only encouraged anti-Moro feelings among the Filipino colonists. The referendum was held under government imposed conditions – hand picked provisional government and improper ballots – and not unexpectedly, Manila announced that 95% of the voters had rejected the Tripoli Agreement. Claiming to be implementing the results of the April 1977 referendum, however belatedly, Marcos proclaimed Presidential Decree No. 1618 on July 25, 1979. This decree abolished the Southern Philippine Provisional Government, established by the Tripoli Agreement, and designated Region IX and Region XII as autonomous Filipino – not Moro – political units. Even this autonomy, created and imposed by Manila, existed in name only. In its origin and purpose, it was similar to the autonomy proposed by the Nicaraguan Sandinistas for the Miskito, Sumo, and Rama peoples, and to that imposed on the Hmong by the Pathet Lao. It reserved specific powers including immigration (read: colonization) for the central government with the stipulation that the powers belonging to Manila were not limited to those enumerated. The powers of the regional governments were subordinate to and under the supervision of Manila. The President of the Philippines appointed one-quarter of the members of the legislative assemblies and all members of the executive councils. In the aftermath of the scuttling of the Tripoli Agreement, open dissension erupted within the ranks of the M.N.L.F. By 1982, several Moro Guerrillas had surrendered to the Philippine government including the vice-chairman, and one of the founders of the M.N.L.F., Abul Khayr Alonto. Dissatisfaction also produced political schisms and the formation of three, rival Moro (B.M.L.O.) was founded by the late Sultan Haroun Al-Rashid Lucman and has been supported by some elements of the traditional society. Dimasankay Pundato, a vice-chairman of the M.N.L.F., and a Maranao, established the M.N.L.F. – Reformist Group (M.N.L.F. – RG). After, unsuccessfully, attempting to depose Nur Misuari, a Suluano and chairman of the M.N.L.F., and Hashim Salamat, chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the M.N.L.F. and a Maguindanaon, founded the M.N.L.F. – Moro Islamic Liberation Front (M.N.L.F. – MILF). Circumstances persuaded these three organizations to enter into an alliance and establish a joint Coordinating Council. Whether as a result of war-weariness, personal rivalries, strongest and largest military force and the one recognized by the Organization of the Islamic Conference as the sole, legitimate representative of the Bangsamoro people. the situation is in greater flux. Filipinos are now fighting among themselves – pro-Aquino, pro-Marcos, pro-military, pro- Marxist – for effective control of the state structure. In such circumstances the opportunity exists, or can be created, to realize Moro national self-determination. The obstacles remain formidable. Over the past 15 years, the Moros have endured horrendous losses in pursuit of this goal: 50,000 – 100,000 killed, mostly women, children and the elderly 200,000 – 300,000 homes and buildings burned 535 mosques demolished 200 schools destroyed 35 cities and villages completely razed almost half the entire Moro population uprooted 100,000 – 200,000 Moro refugees in Sabah, Malaysia an incalculable worth of physical and emotional damage The price of resignation, of submission to Manila, however, is much higher. For the Moro predicament is desperate and getting worse. At the start of the U.S. occupation of Moroland in 1913, the Muslims represented approximately 98% of the territory’s population. Virtually all of the land at that time was owned or occupied by the Moros. As a result of half a century of intensive, systematic Filipino colonization, the Moros are now a dispossessed minority in their own homeland. They constitute only 40% of the current population (Filipino sources claim they are just 22%), own less than 17% of the land, most of it barren land in remote, mountain areas, and have had 80% of their people reduced to the status of landless tenants. Originally, the Moro Problem was referred to as the Southern Philippines Question. Today, it is described as the Southwestern Philippines Question. Tomorrow, it will be known as the Sulu Archipelago Question. Unless the Moros achieve national self- determination, they will no longer be a problem, or a “geographic expression.” They will cease to exist as a nation. To Preserve The Philippine State In the attempt to deny the Moros and the Igorots national self-determination, Filipino nationalists and their foreign supporters cite 10 reasons for the establishment, and subsequent preservation, of the Philippines within its post-1946 borders. 1. The boundaries of the Philippines constitute internationally recognized borders which were officially delineated nearly a century ago during the colonial era. This rational is a paradox. Philippine independence bases its legitimacy on a passionate repudiation of European colonialism, yet it ardently champions and defends the fruits of that colonialism, the territorial boundaries. The essence of this argument is that political borders are legitimate if they have been accepted by the world community of states. But, for its proponents, the logic of this position is self- defeating. For if international recognition confers legitimacy upon political borders, then all decolonization – including Philippines independence – becomes illegitimate. After all, the borders of the various, colonial empires had been accorded such recognition by their peers. If accepted as a general principle, this argument would deny national self-determination to Tibetans and Turkestanis, to Ukrainians and Byelorussians, to Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians, to Irish and Kanaks. Each nation is part of a state, much against their wishes, whose boundaries are internationally recognized — de jure or de facto — by most states. 2. Preservation of the Philippines existing borders is supported by Third World concepts of the sanctity of the territorial integrity of post-colonial states. This belief has only been advanced by the Organization of African Unity in Articles 2 and 3 of its charter. According to this document, in any conflict between the principles of territorial integrity and national self-determination, the former takes precedence. This situation is unique to Africa and has no real bearing on Asia. Asia has no equivalent to the OAU or its charter. On the contrary, borders, more often than not, have been altered from their colonial boundaries. States have been enlarged, others reduced, and still others obliterated from the map. — China invaded and annexed Tibet (1950), later seized parts of the disputed territory of Kashmir (1959-1962). — India and Pakistan were established in 1947 through a dual process of partition and annexation. The British Raj was partitioned into two successor states, while the legally separate entities known as the princely states were annexed to either India or Pakistan. — India annexed the French enclaves of Karikal, Mahe, Pondichey, and Yanam in 1954, the Portugese colonies of Dadra, and Nagar Aveli in 1960, and the last Portugese strongholds of Damao, Diu, and Goa in 1961. The Kingdom of Sikkim was annexed in 1975. — India and Pakistan have fought two wars for control of Kashmir in 1947-48 and again in 1965. The result has been Kashmir’s partition between the two rivals. — The eastern wing of Pakistan seceded to form Bangladesh in 1971. — Dutch New Guinea was transferred to Indonesian rule in 1963. East Timor was invaded and annexed by Indonesia in 1975. — The British colonies on Borneo, Sarawak and Sabah, were united with Malaya to create the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. Singapore was expelled from the federation in 1965. — The United Nations Strategic Trust Territory of Micronesia administered by the United States was partitioned into four separate political units — Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, Northern Marianas, and Palau — during the late 1970s, early 1980s. 3. The Boundaries of the Philippines form “natural” borders for they enclose a distinct, geographic archipelago. The Philippines, however, do not form a single archipelago. It is part of the Malay, or East Indian, Archipelago which includes Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea as well as the Philippines. According to the logic of this argument, the states’ borders should be expanded to include the entire archipelago — islands, states, and peoples. The division of this archipelago in to various states was arbitrary based on European needs not “natural” criteria. A variation of this theme is to stress the “natural” compactness of the state. Yet the distance between Manila and Sibutu Island is almost the same as between Manila and Taipei. Should the Philippines, therefore, claim Taiwan, in part or in whole, as belonging to it? 4. Strategic “choke-points” of several shipping lanes are located within the boundaries of the Philippines. The premise is that strategic points of international waterways are best placed under one political authority for security and efficiency. This argument is without foundation for two reasons. First, as a general rule, choke-points of the world’s shipping lanes are not within the jurisdiction of a single state. Strait of Dover — U.K. and France Strait of Gibraltar — Spain, U.K., Morocco Strait of Hormuz — Oman and Iran Strait of Bab-el Mandeb — North Yemen, South Yemen, Djibouti, and Ethiopia Strait of Magellan — Argentina and Chile Palk Strait — India and Sri Lanka Great Channel — India and Indonesia Strait of Malacca — Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia Strait of Singapore — Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia Drake Passage — Argentina, U.K., Chile Torres Strait — Australia and Papua New Guinea Batabac Strait — Philippines and Malaysia Soya Strait — Japan and the U.S.S.R. Nemuro Strait — Japan and the U.S.S.R. Korea Strait — Japan and South Korea Bering Strait — U.S. and the U.S.S.R. Windward Passage — Cuba and Haiti Strait of Florida — U.S., Bahamas, and Cuba Do the proponents of this argument maintain that such a division of political authority makes these choke-points unsafe? If strategic waterways should be places within the borders of one state, what of these? Which states would be granted this privilege, and why? Second, of the strategic waterways currently within the borders of the Philippines, most would remain under Filipino control even after Igorot and Moro states have been established. Except for a few which cross south of Mindanao through the Sulu Archipelago and the Celebes Sea, the vast majority of the shipping lanes and their choke-points lie between Luzon and the Visayas. 5. The borders of the Philippines enclose a racially homogeneous Malay population. This is a variant on the “natural” border theme. Malays, however, are not restricted to the Philippines. They constitute the majority of the population of Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia. If the borders of the Philippines are legitimate because they unite the Malays in one state, then logically these borders should be expanded to include Malaysia, Brunei, and Indonesia. If, on the other hand, the proponents of this argument accept these three, other Malay states as legitimate (and they do), then there is no reason why two additional Malay states — Igorot and Moro — could not be accepted as well. 6. The boundaries of the Philippines have been established in accordance with democratic principles. The state’s borders have been endorsed overwhelmingly by Filipinos at the voting booths. From 1903-1946, the Moros demonstrated to Washington their consistent and universal opposition to incorporation within an independent Philippines. Argument 6 seeks to deny the ethnic realities of the Philippines and to conceal the colonial domination of the smaller Igorot and Moro nations by the larger, Filipino community behind the democratic facade of majority rule. The implication of this “majority rule” argument is dangerous. It rationalizes the annexation of smaller nations by their larger neighbors and condones the subsequent colonization of the former’s land by the latter. If accepted as a general principle, this argument justifies Chinese occupation of Tibet, Soviet occupation of Lithuania, and the French occupation of Kanakia. 7. Independence for the Igorots and the Moros is without historical validity since neither ever succeeded in establishing a unified state encompassing all of Moroland or the Mountain Province. This is perhaps the most bizarre reason advanced by the supporters of the Philippine state. The argument undercuts their own position, since there never was a Filipino state that ruled all the 7,100 islands. Even the notion of a Filipino identity is non-indigenous. Of the three groups, Igorot, Moro, and Filipino, it is the Filipino which is the most historically invalid. 8. If the Philippine state is broken up, the resulting successor states — Igorot and Moro — would be unviable. Both an Igorot state and a Moro state would be politically, and economically viable. Each in terms of territorial and population size would be larger than a number of independent countries of Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, and the Pacific. Freed from Filipino occupation, the Igorots and the Moros could devote their resources to establishing, or re-establishing, stable independent states. Having successfully defended their national existence for over 400 years against military assaults by Spaniards, Americans, Japanese, and Filipinos, the goal should not be impossible to realize. It is precisely because the lands of the Igorots and the Moros are rich in natural resources — and economically viable as states — that the Philippines wishes to retain possession of them. The price which Manila is paying to hold on to these lands, however, has been costly. The true expense can be seen in the resulting political turmoil and economic decline. (A) Major development projects used to solidify Manila’s control of the Mountain Province and Moroland, have provoked further unrest. Many of the projects have been economic failures in their own right. (B) Funds have been diverted from economic development to the war effort. (C) The government has incurred a heavy debt by seeking international loans for its “development” projects and “counter- insurgency” operations. (D) The wars have fueled inflation, encouraged the black market, promoted corruption, and contributed to the Philippines general economic decline. (E) As a result of the instability, foreign investments in the past have declined. (F) In its effort to win the wars, Manila not only has tolerated the existence of local political “bosses” with their private armies, but has created additional paramilitary units. Such armed groups, however, pose a threat to the stability, and to the functioning, of any democratic government in the Philippines. (G) The attempt to retain control of the Igorots and the Moros has undermined the Philippines political system in another way. The political rhetoric of “territorial integrity,” and other shibboleths of Filipino “nationalism” contributed to the establishment of the Marcos dictatorship, has provoked dissension within the Aquino administration, and was one of the reasons for 4 coup attempts against Aquino. Rational debate is impossible in such an arena where extremism dominates. By its nature the political atmosphere breeds intolerance and tyranny. (H) While the Igorots and the Moros ask only for national self-determination, and do not question the legitimacy of the Philippine government within certain borders, the Marxist New Peoples Army does. The NPA denies the legitimacy of the political establishment in Manila — government, legal, non- Marxist, opposition parties, and their respective social bases. The war between Manila and the NPA is an internecine struggle for control of the Philippines. Neither antagonist questions the validity of the Philippines state. On the contrary, both are articulators of a Filipino “nationalism”. Their differences center on how that state can be strengthened. For Manila, this goal is best realized through a quasi capitalist economy, a multi party political system, and close ties with the West, especially the United States. The NPA seeks to fulfill its version of Filipino “nationalism” by instituting a socialist economy, a communist political dictatorship, and intimate relations with the Soviet Bloc. By rejecting national self-determination for the Igorots and the Moros, Manila is confronted with three rebellions, not just the one. This situation benefits the NPA, and weakens Manila. 9. Political independence for the Igorots and the Moros would be physically impossible to achieve. A significant population of Filipinos has been established among the Igorots and the Moros. If independence were granted to the Mountain Province (1912 borders) and to Moroland, these Filipinos, who have no desire to be separated from the Philippines, would necessarily be included in such states. This, it is claimed, would perpetrate a grave injustice. Furthermore, it is asserted, these Filipinos would undermine the new states by all the means available to them – including violence. On the other hand, the argument continues, since these rival settlements crisscross the disputed territories, no viable political borders could be properly delineated which would effectively separate the respective nations. Deliberately misusing the concept of democratic rights, this argument uses demographic “facts” created by Manila’s policy of colonization to justify preserving that colonialism. If the logic of this argument is accepted as valid, then it would condemn all the captive nations within the Soviet and Chinese states, for example, to perpetual occupation, and many to national extinction. What is intentionally ignored by Argument 9 is that independence for the Igorots and the Moros — within the historic homelands of each — would be premised upon the repatriation of most, if not all, the colonial, Filipino population. Just as the Chinese must leave Tibet, just as the Russians must leave Lithuania, so, too, the Filipino colons must leave the Mountain Province (1912 borders) and Moroland (Basilan, Mindanao, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelago). The precedent exists. The French evacuated Algeria; the Germans left Alsace-Lorraine, Pomerania, and East Prussia; the Italians emigrated from Libya; the Japanese were expelled from south Sakalin. In addition, there have been two major population transfers in this century: between Greece and Turkey in the 1920s, and in the 1940s between India and Pakistan. 10. The breakup of the Philippines would de-stabilize the region. The threat to regional peace comes from the attempt by the Philippines to dominate two, small nations — the Igorots and the Moros. Especially the latter. Manila’s obsession with retaining Moroland has lead it to lay claims to Sabah province of Malaysia. Alleging that Sabah was an integral part of the Sultanate of Sulu, and that the sultan had transferred his patrimony to the Philippines, Manila nearly went to war with Malaysia for control of this territory in the 1960s. A New Political Status brings Stability The establishment of independent Igorot and Moro states would contribute to political stability for the region in general and for the Philippines in particular. Neither a sovereign Singapore, which had been expelled from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, nor an independent Brunei, which refused to join the Malaysian federation and became a sovereign state in 1985, have de-stabilized Southeast Asia. A variation of this theme of de-stabilization stresses that any partition of Luzon and Mindanao would induce political instability. Yet Borneo has been partitioned among three, separate states – Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei. Filipino “nationalists” and their foreign supporters have accepted this political partition, and have accepted the fact it has not lead to instability for the region. If the partition of Borneo can be sanctioned, so can the partitions of both Luzon and Mindanao. Underlying these 10 arguments are specific “Western” biases: 1. Western delineated borders are inherently progressive, hence superior. 2. Large, modern, economic units are superior to small or tribally based economies. Such large economic systems require large, Westernized states to function. 3. Nationalism is archaic and de-stabilizing. Despite the fact that nationalism is a distinctly, Western European phenomenon — the ideology emerged in the 19th century from the convergence of both the Industrial and the French Revolutions — today, it is, ironically, the European world, and the U.S., which dismisses the legitimacy and motivating force of nationalism, and thus are bind to its importance to the non-Western world. 4. Religion is a private matter, a personal conviction, which should not form the rational for independence or the basis of statehood. There is a “Christian” bias in this position. Whether a devout Christian or a Western secularist, or humanist — the two latter beliefs arose directly out of Christendom — there is an insensitivity, perhaps even a fear, of other religions. The desire is to suppress the political power of these other religious communities. 5. Modern, Western culture is superior to all others. The material prosperity, technological achievements, and the extensive political and economic power wielded by this world culture are held as proofs of its inherent superiority. U.S. Interests Oppose Self-Determination Citing the previous arguments, motivated by the above biases, Washington has opposed national self-determination for the Igorots and the Moros. Since 1898, under both Democratic and Republican administrations, the U.S. consistently has promoted and sustained the territorial integrity of the Philippines. Four factors inhibit American policy on this issue from changing, at least in the near future. 1. The desire of the U.S. government to retain its military facilities at Clark air base and Subic naval base, the largest U.S. facilities outside American territory. Although these installations are not located in the disputed territories, and, therefore, would not be directly effected, Washington would be concerned that an aggrieved Filipino “nationalism” – stung by the loss of its colonies would strike out at the U.S., blaming Washington for somehow not preventing the secessions. The prime target for any retaliation would be these bases with Manila canceling the lease agreements. This is a dubious justification for opposing national self- determination for the Igorots and the Moros. For several years, Manila has threatened to phase out these facilities despite considerable U.S. financial and military assistance in defense of the state’s political integrity. At one point during the 1970s, it was alleged that U.S. planes from Clark air base even participated in air strikes against the MNLF in Mindanao. Evidently, Washington believes, or hopes, that these threats to close the military bases are just a bargaining chip for future negotiations. Under that assumption, as long as the bases remain open no actions should be taken that could be used to justify any closure. This means continued opposition to Igorot and Moro national self-determination. 2. The intent of major American corporations to preserve their immensely profitable business operations. Over the decades, an intimate and mutually rewarding relationship has developed between Manila and foreign firms doing business in the Philippines, chiefly U.S. companies. For both the Filipino government and its foreign business allies the tribal lands have constituted a rich prize. Under the cover of “national development,” these lands have been invaded and exploited. The results have benefited both parties. The companies have reaped tremendous, financial profits. Manila, however, has reaped something more valuable — political dividends. The tribal societies, which form a rival authority, have been undermined. An effective governmental presence has been established in these territories, in many instances for the first time. Most importantly, Filipino colonists have migrated to these lands. To entice foreign corporations to undertake “development” projects, the Marcos administration offered such companies tax exemptions and the right to repatriate up to 100% of their profits. Multinationals were receptive. During the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s, U.S. firms, generally, prospered despite the wars. The principle target for “development” was Mindanao which has been transformed into a showcase of Philippine agriculture. Mindanao is the treasure chest of the Philippines. The island accounts for 100% of the state’s rubber, 100% of all exported bananas, 100% of all exported pineapples, 100% of its aluminum ore, 90% of its iron ore, 89% of its nickel, 89 % of its cobalt, 62% of its limestone, 56% of its corn, 50% of its coconuts, 50% of its fish, 50% of its zinc, 40% of its cattle, 25% of its coal, and 20% of its rice. With three-fifths of the country’s total timber land, lumbering is another lucrative industry. The total land concessions granted to logging companies amounts to five million hectares. Other sources of revenues for Manila include: ramie, palay, coffee, cocoa, copper, marble, cement, steel, and gold. Most of the profits from these enterprises accrue to a few giant U.S. multinationals. 97% of all income derived from rubber goes to three firms — Goodrich, Goodyear, and Firestone. 99% of all Pineapple sales are accounted for by two companies — Dole and Del Monte.
      • ChinoF says:

        Well, I’ll have to admit that I’m the only one then with the idea that the choice of the inauguration speech language is an expression of looking inward and rejecting foreign aid. Well, given that’s that true as well, I’m sure the anti-foreignism of the current admin will soon rear its ugly head, and will detriment the country.

        But seeing where the discussion went, I have to agree with BongV. There is no pure Filipino. Other nations themselves don’t have pure cultures. Japan did not develop its culture on its own; it copied China. America as we see now owes itself to British culture, which owes itself to European culture, which owes itself to Rome, which owes itself to Greece, which owes itself to more previous civilizations. There are even theories that Sumer and Egypt got their ideas from the fabled Atlantis. Looking for a “pure, untainted” culture is a futile exercise. Like I said, let’s stop rejecting the foreign stuff and instead embrace it for our betterment.

      • Lorenz says:

        your question can hardly be answered chino because there even still debates today as to why Rizal used Spanish for his novels. Still, he studied many Philippine languages so that also speaks for itself.

        Maybe he is directing his novels for the Europeans to let them know the harshness of the Spaniards or fellow illustrados and greedy corrupt Spaniards in the Philippines? After all, he wanted Philippines to be a part of Spain.

      • ChinoF says:

        Yeah, I’ll just leave it at that. At least we know that what we should watch out for comes after the inauguration speech, whatever language it is delivered in.

      • ChinoF says:

        Just leaving this on as additional reading for the topic Lorenz and I talked about:

        Malansang Isda by Rosalinda N. Olsen – Why Rizal wrote Noli and Fili in Spanish

      • Lorenz says:

        I read the article. I understand. That’s what i want. Philippines to be like Japan, China, Indonesia, Malaysa, South Korea, and many others. Not needing and using English to live and prosper. The true marks of liberty.

        Sadly, it may never happen. Why can’t Philippines be like her neighbors?

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … simple ’nuff, lorenz…” Sadly, it may never happen. Why can’t Philippines be like her neighbors?”

        … because flips do not want to be themselves (flips)…

        … i.e. ask anybody in hawaii or guam or kalipornya… they talk, walk, smell, look flips… but they’ll deny their flipness… :mrgreen:

      • Miriam Quiamco says:

        What about India, what is the official language there? Aren’t we more like India than Indonesia or Malaysia? Filipinos have regional dialects that shape their identity, but that doesn’t make them less Filipino. I think N/A is being OA again by using Tagalog when in fact, people in Cebu would rather hear the president speak in English, being a neutral language. He can’t stop being condescending to the Filipino masses, and people in the Mountain province cannot even speak Tagalog. Just because his inauguration smacks of bad Filipino soap opera, he does not have to be patronizing to Filipinos who are not all well verse in Tagalog. Holy ghost, this president is getting everything wrong on his inauguration day. Tsk, tsk, tsk, hope his borrowed ideas like increasing the military budget (originally a Gibonian vision) will be put into action just fine, considering he had not really thought about how to make this into government policy even in his campaign. We have to give him credit for being a good listener at those public debates, he has picked up some brilliant policy proposals from competent minds.

      • ChinoF says:

        Not needing and using English to live and prosper.

        I think that is an impossibility, Lorenz, and a sign of being misinformed. And it’s not the right goal; for me that’s an emo goal. Those nations you mentioned… they still need people learning English (or another language aside from their own) for international trade. And you can’t do away with international trade. It’s actually how they became prosperous. And South Korea… why are they even sending people here to learn English? Because they realize that they need it for international trade. Their economy grew thanks to people who know English and other foreign languages. This is a globalized world, and you have to be part of it. If you don’t want globalization, be like North Korea and have people living in worse conditions than Manila slums.

        Throwing away English for me is not the solution for, nor the sign of our country’s prosperity. I think you need to study more the signs of a prosperous and successful nation. Sticking to one’s own language only certainly isn’t one sign.

        If Rizal’s quote on language is important to you, you still have to see beyond it. Rizal wanted better treatment from Spain and other foreign countries, but I’m sure he didn’t say, “once we’re prosperous, we’ll drop Spanish and use only Tagalog.” No, I’m sure if Rizal achieved his goal, we’ll still be speaking Spanish and Tagalog. Well, that’s my view, and I’m sure I’m not the only one holding it.

        And even if we throw away English, we still have a great language divide within our country. Hiligaynon, Bisaya, Waray, Ilocano and all that are full-fledged languages, not dialects, and we’ll see a lot of quarrels here on what will be our national language. English serves a good purpose. I take it from my officemate’s case. She is Mindanaoan, but was raised in Manila and knows Tagalog. Her grandmother in Mindanao does not know Tagalog. When they meet, how would they understand each other? They both know English. Now what would have happened if we threw away English? We would have ruined a good grandmother-granddaughter relationship.

        Not needing and using English to live and prosper is not a true mark of liberty. It is a sign of being closed off and egoistically ethnocentric (something I consider a fault). I’m sorry Lorenz, but that struck a chord with me and I vehemently and rabidly disagree.

      • Lorenz says:

        The Malaysian driver said “Madam why do you peak English? We are all Malaysians.”

        Enough said.

        Why does a Filipino have to speak English to a fellow Filipino? Why does a Chinese need to speak English to a fellow Chinese? Why does a South Korean have to speak English to a South Korean?

        Of course, if it’s foreigners, business, and investment we’re talking about, then yes English is the proper way. I’m not talking about dropping English. I am talking about a normal Filipino not needing and using English to live and prosper just as the normal Japanese/Chinese/etc. do. Go to Japan or China and try to speak English to them. The citizens aside from the tourist guides will most likely never understand you.

        The average Chinese/Japanese/etc. don’t need english to live and prosper in their lives. Only the businessmen need them because THEY HAVE TO. That’s their job.

        And when it comes to the numerous languages of the Philippines, then look at China. It may even have more languages than we have. I’m not sure. Yet one prevails all. It should be that way.

        The number of individual languages listed for China is 293. Of those, 292 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers.


      • ChinoF says:

        But the Malaysian driver still spoke English. And his saying, “we were all Malaysians,” was because of a wrong assumption, and was only another way of saying, “Hey, aren’t you Malaysian, speak to me in Malaysian.” It’s not really a statement of principle, given the context. So the author said she was Filipino, and they had to speak in English.

        I went to Singapore, and despite the obviousness that some people aren’t just good in English, they do know a bit. It makes me believe that it’s a myth to “prosper without English.” At least you’re not for dropping it, because that would be a big idiocy.

        If the average Chinese/Japanese don’t need English to live and prosper in their lives, you could say it’s because their lives were helped by those who knew English – those businessmen who got foreign investments. I’m sure all Asians countries that prospered did so because of foreign investment. All that “closed economy” stuff is most likely mythological for me. The knowledge of language per se did not help them become prosperous, but they used it to get foreign business. They had the right economic system to help them become prosperous.

        I think what you mean is… let’s have a state wherein we can be like the Chinese/Japanese and other Asians, wherein we won’t need English to prosper in their lives. Sounds attractive, but I still don’t buy it. Even today, English is known by many people, even squatters, but they’re not prospering. So much for “prosper in English.” But I insist on English because of the wealth of readings and materials on different philosophies and ideas that we could access. Besides, people in those countries are most likely stepping up on English language programs. I think more and more citizens aside from those tourist guides are learning English. English is not named the “international language” for nothing.

        Why does an Asian have to speak English to a fellow Asian? Why not? I would say it’s because there are a lot of ideas from other countries that they could talk about only in English, and they can practice a different way of thinking with another language. In other words, it is enriching.

        Well, I see your stance, and I have mine. If you think my pro-foreign personal culture disturbs you, I can’t blame you. But let me have mine. I get riled up with anti-foreignism because much of the anti-foreignism I’ve seen is colored with arrogance and stiff pride. Thanks for the discussion.

      • Lorenz says:

        and much of the pro-foreignism i’ve seen is also colored with arrogance and stiff pride.

        you know why? because only a few love filipino languages. only few love to discover about Philippine mythology and culture. only few love filipino martial arts. only few love to discover more on Philippine history. only a few love filipino music (kulintang not the charise or westernized music crap)

        yet almost everyone loves english. almost everyone loves foreign culture. almost everyone love martial arts not filipino.

        if you speak english you are sosyal. if you know and understand english your are bright and genius.

        almost everything being studied, appreciated, and talked about are all foreign. foreign books. foreign movies. foreign music. that’s what i’ve undergone. almost everything available here is foreign. i’ve thirsted for something purely asian. purely filipino. untainted by western cultures.

        hope you understand. Watch Spirited Away and you’ll understand too. It’s the only foreign animated film to win an Oscar award. and it’s got something to do with Japanese culture and globalization.

      • Lorenz says:

        why don’t you read this article too? It’s an observation by an American who has come to love our own country.

      • ChinoF says:

        That observation of lack of pride in being Filipino was observed before, I’ve seen in another article, Peter Wallace I believe. But inferiority complex is a symptom rather than the cause. AP points of view have moved beyond this article and seen more points.

        I think one commenter here has theorized that the reason why people are not too proud of being Filipino is that it is a forced identity. We are actually made up of different cultures and ethnicities. And many languages. They were forced to be one nation by Spain, then by America. But it never melded. We’re still in that state today. We should clean out the local rivalries and help them accept each other, without thinking contemptuously of the other culture. Unite the culture before the language, as language is a product of culture.

        Let me just say that this: Why not love the local stuff? Say, the local TV is full of Wowowee-like stuff. Is it worth watching? No. I would then be prone to boycotting the local stuff.

        If you are looking for something uber-Filipino, untainted by western culture, I think that is impossible. Perhaps you’ll find something in the era of alibata. Filipino culture, stripped of foreign influences, is just the tribal, ethnic, caveman-level stuff (my elementary history teacher said this, and I’m seeing it in reality). Also, remember, all cultures have influences by foreign countries. I thus believe that looking for “untainted” Filipino culture is an unrealistic pursuit. It is too idealistic – and is too pride-based. Let us instead embrace our foreign influences and use these to help better our country.

        Look at my example of the officemate and her grandmother. English serves a purpose. I doubt our tribal factions would accept one tribe’s language becoming the national one, so a good additional language is English. If a Cebuano and Ilocano can’t understand each other, and they don’t want to accept another tribe’s language, English will help. I think we should stop seeing English as a “sosyal” or “bright and genius” language. Let’s keep it for everyone’s benefit.

        If I love English more than the local language, it should not be condemned as a Filipino-hating or unpatriotic act. Alam ko pa rin ang Tagalog, no. If I were unpatriotic, I would have totally dropped Tagalog or any local language (Though I admit saying “I hate Filipino” when I was grade 5 or younger, hehehe, but because of the difficulty of learning it. And a teacher told me, Tagalog is really more difficult to learn, because it has more rules). As I said, insistence on the single national language is problematic. Circumstances don’t support it. So let’s not focus on it.

        If we want to be proud in being Filipino, let’s do so by doing what AP has always done. Pointing out the problems, suggesting the solutions (like charter change and economic development), and spreading the world. We can solve that language issue once we have less important problems to think about.

        Let’s look for for something to be proud of later. Let’s look for something that works right first.

        I’ll try and watch Spirited Away, but note that movies always reflect the biases of the scriptwriters and directors. Don’t let that be your only inspiration.

      • benign0,

        As you may know, all foreign dignataries always travel prepared. Whether it be in the Philippines, or in any other countries for that matter.

        That is why they have translater to re affirm the words that is being delivered, and to be understood by the individual, who are not familiar with the vernacular language being spoken.

      • mel says:

        Know what, I translate from English to German but not from Tagalog to German. Translators got lost, too! English is the official language of the Philippines, PNOY should have announced it before that he is making his speech in Tagalog. Did he?

      • mel,

        You must understand, this is our land, The Philippines. The presiding President Aquino does not need, to inform any visiting dignitaries from any foreign countries, in which manner he should present his inaugural speech, to our people and to our Nation.

        Our President, Mr. Aquino and with his inaugural speech, was well spoken and directed to our Nation and for the Filipino people of the Philippines, nobody else!

        Correction there mel, Tagalog is our primary language, not English. Which is a great secondary language to learn. The ability to use it, from any foreign countries. But to articulate the English words into obscurity, or try to be intellectual in such manner, can also be less effective to be understood. Don’t you agree?

        If you cannot agree to that, so be it.

      • Jay says:


        So much for Tagalog (Filipino) being the primary language when it is the primary language of Manila and NCR. Everywhere else, its still strong regionalism over the supposed common language of the country. But be surprised, ENGLISH is actually communicated pretty well in those areas, specifically towards northern-mid Luzon for the obvious reasons.

        The argument regarding which language the speech should be is moot. Besides Noynoy is reading off some speech writer with a flair for the dramatic. It is certainly not from his heart.

      • mel says:


        Oh, missed that part. As I left for Germany, English is our official language. It is in the World Almanac.

        Anyway, it was better so. Lucky are those who did not understand his speech! :mrgreen:

      • ChinoF says:

        Hmm, for one thing, I had the idea that we had official languages rather than just one language. As the Wikipedia entry on our country and the CIA Factbook says, Filipino (based on Tagalog) and English are both official languages. So liking one over the other is merely a personal or sectoral opinion, and does not reflect patriotism nor the lack of it. They’re both official languages.

      • ChinoF says:

        Even our government website says both English and Filipino are official languages, although the emphasis on English is that it is a medium of instruction.

      • @mel,

        “…Lucky are those who did not understand his speech!”

        Either or, for some, they are lost in the transition. Best, to keep educated.

        As I always say, believe not in politics, but invest in yourself. Nobody else, is going to watch your back.

      • @jay,

        Alam mo kasi, sa basis na understanding sa our Filipino languages, are crucial sa mga indentities natin. Di ba! Damn…, we have so many of them.

        Was it that noticeable, ang mga papel lumilipad all over the place, where is the “Teleprompter” when you needed them. 😉

      • BongV says:

        @mario taporco: mabuti’t napasyal ka. last time i checked panay ata ang puna mo sa AP in the FV comment threads. it’s good that you check out the AP comment threads for yourself – and see for yourself whether the comments made about AP in the FV threads are warranted… instead of speculating.

      • mel says:


        Hmmm, you are now preaching!

        Know the word “sarcasm?” Do not get emotional, please!

      • @mel,

        Preaching is for the promiscuous canons. It’s not my duty to lay it on the line, to how pundit(s) should react.

        Also, is it befitting to use sarcasm when responding to an article? this is where a train of thoughts gets lost, for being EMO. Sarcastic remarks should be tone down, so that the message being delivered is understood.

        Sorry mel, neither preaching, and also not getting emotional. Glad we can exchange words. Nice to meet you! 

      • What’s up @BongV,

        Trying to get the feel how AP really is.
        Sometimes it’s good to speculate, but idealistically it is also good to know your surroundings. Drop in a bit at FV, just to rattle their senses.

        Thanks BongV, will debate more often.

      • BongV says:

        good to see you mario. i drop by FV, but my comments still aren’t going through – i’ll just charge it to FV’s immaturity. 😆

    • Miauw Ming says:

      Difficult for me to read.

      Bisaya intawon ko. T_T

      • palebluedot says:

        kapuy basahon…makalibat.

      • NFA rice says:

        nice to know naay mga cebuano speakers diri. Gimingaw gyud ko sa Cebu ai.

        I am Cebuano. I understand Tagalog but my tongue is uncomfortable with that language. I speak in English when I talk to non-Cebuano speakers.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … i speak in tagalog when i talk to my atsays/atsoys and sexy gurlz from da south of ‘tang inang imperial manila..

    • Parallax says:

      Walang pangingibang-bayan at gastusan na walang wastong dahilan. Walang pagtatalikod sa mga salitang binitawan noong kampanya, ngayon at hanggang sa mga susunod pang pagsubok na pagdadaanan sa loob ng anim na taon.

      Walang lamangan, walang padrino at walang pagnanakaw. Walang wang-wang, walang counterflow, walang tong. Panahon na upang tayo ay muling magkawang-gawa.

      at this point i couldn’t help but be reminded of erap’s “walang kaibigan, walang kumpare, walang kamag-anak” bullsh*t.

      interestingly the camera focused on erap on cue on the second paragraph.

      • mel says:

        Why was Erap there? Did they cook something during the election? I smell something fishy….

      • helios says:

        yeah I was thinking the same thing…. what the hell was he doing there?????? convicted plunderer right. begeesus… anyway, I think it is only appropriate that the inaugural speech be in Tagalog, he is after all addressing Filipinos not the foreign dignitaries (perhaps they should have been provided with translators????) Having said that, the speech was well, cheesy…. not much meat if you ask me.

        i do agree that the President is being attacked relentlessly….. I may not agree with it but you AP writers have every right to do so, in the same way that the President’s fan boys (and fan girls) have every right to sing praises to their Messiah (they have the right to hallucinate). I am hopeful but I am not expecting a lot from this presidency.

      • ChinoF says:

        Yeah, the speech talked about “there can be no reconciliation without justice.” Yet, did he just reconcile with Erap without justice? Ooops, I’m belying the obvious. hehe

      • Hyden Toro says:

        I’ve heard those speeches before…it’s a boring inaugural speech…

    • Hyden Toro says:

      He has a litany of “to do” list. “kung walang corrupt, walang mahirap”. The imbecile still believes in this delusion. So, fasten your seat belts. It will be a bumpy ride. I cross my fingers. I’m a realist, not an optimist. Delusion may be for the Philippines in granduer. maybe, we are now in Noynoy Aquino’s Wonderland. It remains to be seen…

  3. john says:

    Why did he say BangsaMoro, not Muslim? Is he planning to make a bangsa moro in Mindanao? Isn’t that trecherous?

    • palebluedot says:

      bangsamoro also refers to the moro people, not just the moro land. i find it awkward though to use it together with christians and lumad.

  4. mel says:

    “Tayong lahat ay kabilang sa isang bansa kung saan maaari nang mangarap ulit.”

    At least, we can again dream…. oh my gulay!!!

    • Lorenz says:

      Do not worry if you have built your castles in the air. They are where they should be. Now put the foundations under them. – Henry David Thoreau

      Dreams that go without action are not very useful. – Patrick Awuah

  5. Dee says:

    His Tagalog speech shouldn’t a basis for anti-foreignism suspicion.

    He did say:

    “Gagawin nating kaaya-aya sa negosyante ang ating bansa… We will level the playing field for investors and make government an enabler, not a hindrance, to business.”

    But his poor track record could be the basis of our doubts of his ability to deliver such promise. I know he didn’t mention foreign investors here. And we don’t know how serious he is in pulling in foreign investors. But I think the huge unemployment will really push him to do so because like what he said,

    “Sa ganitong paraan lamang natin mapupunan ang kakulangan ng trabaho para sa ating mga mamamayan.”

    If he fails to bring jobs, a lot of already frustrated/impatient/disgruntled Filipinos will only become more enraged. And we know what that means.

    • shadowbroker says:

      But hilariously the biggest enabler to invite foreign investors would be that changing that law back in the 1987 constitution. The protectionist laws is THE BIGGEST hindrance in letting foreign investors and business come to the country and compete with us. To believe in anything he says about his knowledge of bringing in foreign investment, the SAME GUY who doesn’t make it a big deal traveling to foreign soil to ask for loan from a foreign corporation screams hypocrisy to me.

      I don’t buy it one bit. The moment he actually starts playing with figures and numbers with concrete projects in mind, then I will be partially convinced. Otherwise he’s adding more fluff to the already sweetened fluff he’s promised his voters.

    • Hyden Toro says:

      There is a Hell of Difference between a prepared speech, read on the podium. And, the results and delivery of your performance as a President. Speeches are nothing. It is the results of your works that will count. Don’t be taken by political speeches. They are made to tickle your ears.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … prez abnoy speech is like a lump of star margarine melting in the sun; it lacked substance… puro bulls#it…

      • NFA rice says:

        On the contrary inauguration speeches are important. They should give us listeners an idea what the presidency will be like and serve us some standard to evaluate the presidency in the coming years.

        However President Aquino’s speech is poorly written with liberal amounts of platitudes. It contains no time frames. Abstraction makes it easier for Aquino to pay lip service. Enough of speeches like that.

  6. concerned_citizen says:

    The next six years is going to be a fiasco.I’ll even bet the first 100 days will be more of a comedy of sorts.
    I’m gonna laugh my ass off for the next 6 years.

    • Hyden Toro says:

      Give the man a chance and the benefit of the doubt. You may laugh. You may cry. Or, you may puke. At least, he is trying. Let us see if his words match his deeds.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … hey y’all… leave the suspicions to the dreamers and enter the realms of reality…

  7. Arnel E says:

    While BSA3 is taking his oath, it is funny to note that TV viewers can see CJ Corona behind him.

    Corona was invited to attend the inauguration, even if he is not tasked to administer the oath to the new President. Surely, he knew he will be a bit insulted as he will be seated farther away from, while Justice Carpio-Morales is closer to, the President. The CJ still attended the event, perhaps as some sort of conciliatory gesture.

    But then the speech insulted him more:
    “Sa mga itinalaga sa paraang labag sa batas, ito ang aking babala: sisimulan natin ang pagbabalik ng tiwala sa pamamagitan ng pag-usisa sa mga “midnight appointments.” Sana ay magsilbi itong babala sa mga nag-iisip na ipagpatuloy ang baluktot na kalakarang nakasanayan na ng marami.”

    • ChinoF says:

      One thing I gather from Aquino’s speech is that it is full of hatred against the previous administration. And only the previous one. Nothing against Erap or Marcos anymore.

      I hope he drops it, for crying out loud, and focuses on economic development.

      • lee says:

        Very true. He talks about bringing about justice when there’s a convicted plunderer sitting right behind him. Face it NoyNoy, if you spoke about delivering justice in its most ideal scenario 99% of the seats behind you will be empty.

      • helios says:

        haha this is a good one…. i love it

    • J.B. says:

      Better Corona decides first on Hacienda Luisita pretty quick. Once P.Noy sacred cow is threatened, he’ll surely change tunes.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … corona should finish and submit his thesis to be credited for this law thingy…

  8. mel says:

    “…ito naman ang umpisa ng kalbaryo ko…”

    Paawa-effect, PNoy! You decided to run for the Presidency, so get the job done, verdammt nochmal!!

    As I read PNoy’s inaugural speech, I cried because I felt nothing……(borrowed from the Chorus Line, a Musical from James Kirkwood and Nicholas Dante, 1975).

    • ChinoF says:

      I’m sure on that Calvary, he’ll trip a lot of times and never reach the top. He’ll even drop the cross and sliding down the hill it goes. Think Sisyphus.

      He sure makes a poor example of a Christian going through the Calvary trip. Chances are the people are the ones going through the Calvary.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daaang

        … prez abnoy does not understand the relationship between words and actions, so, words become a substitute…

        … magkano na ba ang forex?

    • Hyden Toro says:

      Yes,this is your Calvary; because we will really Crucify you at the Luneta Park, if you don’t fulfill your promises!

  9. UP nn grad says:

    Let us see who they are and how many smugglers and tax-evaders get put in jail in the first 100 days of the Noynoy administration.

    In the meanwhile, maybe Noynoy should pass a law that prohibit wang-wang sirens except when used by ambulance and police vehicles.

    • maikimai says:

      There is already a law forbidding unnecessary use of sirens, AFAIK. The only people who can use it are:

      2.Senate President
      3.House Speaker
      4.Police vehicle w/ an officer in uniform

      • innagadda54 says:

        2.Senate President
        3.House Speaker
        4.Police vehicle w/ an officer in uniform

        are you sure about that list? I don’t see the convoy of Ms. Gretchen Barretto on that list anywhere.

  10. BongV says:

    mao lagi – si noynoy presidente sa tagalog.. way labot ang bisaya ug ilonggo ug ilocano.. pesteng yawa

    • Lorenz says:

      hahaha bisaya diay ka. taga asa man ka bai? haha

      • BongV says:

        taga dabaw ko bay.

        di ko kasabot anang tagawog – mag sapinday ko ug paminaw ug sulti

        apan magtagawog ko panagsahay aron mohumok akong dela.. lol

        (yaga yaga ra bitaw ning akoa bay)

      • Lorenz says:

        taga dumaguete ko bay. lisud bitaw nang tagalog. kanang pagsturya ug pagbasa. sa tinuod atung hayskul pako mas malingaw pakog english subject kaysa sa filipino. galagot pud ko kay gihimug tagalog ang history. pero karon lahi na. nationalista naman ko ron. dili nacionalista party ha hahaha kanang patriotic

        naka ojt napud ko sa makati. didto ko nakakaton gamay na magtinagalog. dili man gud ko ganahan mag iningles sa kapwa pilipino. no sense para nako. dili gud ta amerikano nya naa tay kaugalingon na lenguwahe. ngano mugamit pag lain. kung foreigner akong kasturya dira rako mag iningles. nag trying hard jud kog tinagalog. arang arang nako mu sturya. haha

        nakaila man gud kog mga butan ug makalingaw na mga tagalog na ga college pud didto. lingaw kaayo bay. dapat inana ra. walay “ay akong lenguwahe muy dapat national language sa pilipinas” ug mga inana. regionalism ba. samut ma failed state ang pilipinas.

        lantawa nang china. mas grabe ilang gobyerno mu higpit ug mga balaod para sa lenguwahe. daghan pud kaayo silag lenguwahe didto bay. bali biyang dakoa anang china.

      • Miriam Quiamco says:

        China is an older civilization which has never been occupied by a foreign power. In our time and age, more specifically, in our global society, it is immaterial what language we use, English is more useful for people to be competent in. It is too late for us to aspire to be another China, our educational system was introduced by the Americans and our modern accumulation of knowledge and learning has all been in English, it would be a loss of too much time and resources to translate everything in English. I think Filipinos are comfortable in being bilingual, their regional dialect and the official English language. We are more like India than China, and look at India, it is even an older civilization, but because of disparities of languages and culture, and a modernized state started with British rule, they are pretty comfortable with English and their respective regional dialects. Why the big deal on using Tagalog, many Filipinos including my friends in Cebu are not at all comfortable speaking and hearing Tagalog. Why not Cebuano, instead, there are more Cebuano speakers than Tagalog speakers in the country.

      • Lorenz says:

        Haha and look who’s falling behind.

        Both India and China are older civilizations yet China is way ahead of India.

        The regionalism is still prevalent in Philippines even before the Spaniards came. They only heightened it by make us fight one another.

        That will never unite the country. China has one national language which is Standard Mandarin among the 292 languages. Why aren’t there uprisings as to why Mandarin is chosen over those 292 languages?

        We will never mature like this. Other Asians have matured. There has to be one language and it must NOT be foreign. Language is a sense of identity. We are never Americans. English will always be foreign as it belongs to the British and American culture. To that of Shakespeare and many others. Not our Anitos, Bathala, etc.

        Of course, globalization is the way. We should learn English but it must not be our primary language.

        Indians speak English in a very weird way and not likely the British or American pronunciation. That is because English is and will never be their true language. Because they are Indians and not Americans or British.

        BTW, Tagalog and Cebuano belong to the same family of languages including Bahasa Melayu and Bahasa Indonesia.

      • Miriam Quiamco says:

        You are right India is falling behind China, when it comes to HDI, China is way up there, but that is because of totalitarian system of government. Would you like a Communist system of government to control your provinces and so the government could promote equality because of centralized economic planning. I think our case is closer to India because we are trying to pursue development goals under a democratic system of government, which of course has all the imperfections of third world country brand of democracy. Do we want the Chinese model for development? It will not work here.

        And it is not a coincidence that India is leading in the Business outsourcing. What about Singapore and Hongkong, okay these are small states, but the Philippines could develop based on our cultural differences, while recognizing the importance of neutral language. Tagalog doesn’t have to be it. Our only exposure to Tagalog is from mind-numbing TV programming from Manila. Most ideas that we have read are from English books and the ordinary folks as they go about their daily lives express themselves in their native vernacular. We should encourage the development of our distinct ethnic identities and then forge a common Filipino identity based on diversity. I think it is too late to go towards nationalism, we are now beyond nationalism, English is the lingua franca of business, science and technology in the international community. China, Korea and Japan are spending millions of dollars to ratchet up their English language education programs.

      • ChinoF says:

        Why only insist on one primary language? Why try to follow another Asian country (China) that is problematic as well? Are you sure the other countries are maturing through a single language? If you see one national language as a sign of maturity, I see it as your observation only. Others may have better facts.

        I believe it is inaccurate to say that our Asian neighbors are mature by having only one language. Singapore has a lot of English speakers and did not force a national language. Malaysia has its own language, but it probably has less ethnic diversity than us. I believe its schools are having more English these days as well. East Timor has Portugese and Tetum. I think it is more mature that if there are several cultures with different languages in a country, then it should force one of those languages to be national. It would mean that one ethnicity has been favored over another, and it could cause unrest or trouble. Or else, the other cultures will just stick to their own languages, and may just quietly disobey learning the national language.

        In China, if I’m not mistaken, Mandarin was chosen because the sector that became the imperial rulers or the communist rulers ordered it to be official, a sort of ethnocentrism. They may not be uprisings as you say, but who knows, there may be some you don’t know about. Also, look North. The regions there just need to choose not to speak Mandarin. And they’re also most depressed backward areas (A missionary friend in China is my source).

        But I think it’s not a good example for us. It can be similar to how “imperial” Manila imposed Tagalog over all the Philippines. If we force a national language that is not foreign, there might be bloodshed over it. Or, like when Manila imposed Tagalog, other cultures didn’t care and didn’t learn Tagalog. You can blame it on schools being poorly equipped, but culture will still play in. You can see, some posting here know Tagalog aside from their own languages, but surely most of the millions of Filipinos out there don’t know it.

        I think the drive for a single national language is very complex and problematic, and shouldn’t be made a major goal. It won’t be a unifying factor; it can be a sign of unification, but is the sign, not necessarily the cause, and thus should not be treated as the main focus. Whether we have one national language or several national languages should not be seen as good or bad; either is good. Cultural unity should come first. Meaning, let us not dilute our many Filipino cultures into one, but recognize each and everyone equally. One national language should be a peripheral, not an urgent pursuit.

        I understand your beliefs and main pursuit, but here I’m pointing out the problems in it. I apologize if I seemed flared up before, but I still wish to share my views too. Let the others see our discussion and judge what they could take from it.

      • Jon Abaca says:

        Saying that China’s language policy is one of the primary reasons they are successful is a very big umbrella argument.

        Besides, nationalism should not be language centric, but results centric. The primary language should result in better opportunities for more people.

      • Lorenz says:

        i am not saying China’s language policy is one of the primary reasons it is successful. all i’m saying is only one language can be primary. english shall always be secondary for non-native speakers of English. This is on a personal level.

        also, the primary language shall represent the identity of the nationhood and its culture and people.

        english has flaws and weaknesses just like any other language. other languages has words that can hardly be explained in english. English is nothing special. it’s only made international language spoken by so many people because of the superpowers British Empire and the USA. because of that, english was enriched over other languages. even americans agreed to this. i am a gamespot forumer and have asked the americans of this. even some were alarmed as to why english was forced in our school. yes i have undergone it. in my elementary school, we were PROHIBITED to speak cebuano and only speak ENGLISH. terrible i tell you.

      • BongV says:


        Try speaking tagalog in your future interviews with international firms.

        Try speaking tagalog with international businessmen.

        sure, you can go with tagalog firms, tagalog din sweldo mo 😆

      • ChinoF says:

        Remember that “bawal ang Tagalog” policy in English class and you have to pay P1 everytime you said a Tagalog word? I disagree with that method too, but I understand the motive. English knowledge gives someone an edge. Let’s use it wisely instead of scorn it.

      • BongV says:

        it didn’t work – everyone spoke the dialect at the same time. 🙂

        instead – we had lots of practice time:

        * remember the SRA books?

        * lots of oration/declamation contests – inter-class/inter-grade levels/inter-school (ngayon puro na wowowee)?

        * lots of good movies – remember the all-time soccer great, Pele? we watched a lot of his movies – courtesy of pepsi 😆 oh eys, movies in english

        – i’ll watch pinoy moviews with good storylines – Sister Stella L… Banaue.. all the rest are tear jerkers and soft porn.. really lousy ones at that – a waste of my time – no pinoy polyanna will get in my way

      • Jon Abaca says:

        “In my elementary school, we were PROHIBITED to speak cebuano and only speak ENGLISH. terrible i tell you”

        That’s just wrong. It’s just about as wrong as forcing people who speak a regional dialect at home to consider Tagalog, ahem, Filipino, as their national language.

        If you want a better understanding of National language and Identity, it’s better to look at Germany or Italy. Both nations evolved out of a collection of smaller states.

        Both nations had very little trouble with the whole “Prussian as Standard German” / “Florentine as Standard Italian” because their languages are very much related, having a mutually friendly vocabulary and grammar structure. As a plus, literary giants like Goethe and Dante used those dialects. I could be wrong though, I don’t know European history that well.

        Looking at the vocabularies of the Philippine languages, I can safely say that their vocabularies are mostly not mutually friendly.

        Another example…

        A Swede listening to a Dane speaking slowing will probably understand more than a Tagalog listening to a Bisaya speak slowly.

        China is a different case. The last time China had separate city states was before the rule of the Tiger of Qin. When he became ruler, he got to work becoming immortal andforcing people to use a unified writing and measuring system. China has expanded since then (Tibet) and absorbed more cultures (Uyghur) , but they always resort to the power of Big Government to force people to speak the same thing. Even then, they at least print money with the minority languages written on it. People in are pretty much used to people forcing them to speak the same.

      • ChinoF says:

        I had another thought. On national language, gusto ng isa Tagalog, gusto ng isa, Bisaya, gusto ng iba Ilocano, tapos isa Cebuano, and so on, so forth. Aaway lang kayo para diyan? Sige, ganito… mag-English nalang kayo! Walang away diyan, diba? Better to speak goot englitschzes than quarrel over a mouthful of bullcrap.

        And if someone wants a scholarly, deliberate effort to create a new national language… after creating, making the people speak it is still a big problem. You’re gonna need strong government power to do that. And it tends to be totalitarian. Like China. Easier said than done.

      • palebluedot says:

        this regionalism is so medieval. english ah!

    • ulong pare says:

      … daaang

      … prez abnoy is ‘pangan+ilocane… a tangalog…

      … i am the real thing… from the land of tumbanog, lanzones and buko pie

      … if prez abnoy claims to be a real thing, he’s lying…

      … but i forgive him, he’s stranded in the brink of manhood…

  11. lee says:

    One of the strangest things from today’s inauguration was that song… I’m sorry the name of the performing artist escapes me. But while he was strumming his guitar and singing his NoyNoy praises, one line of his song made me laugh. He was rapping this part so at first I wasn’t sure if I heard it right but I swear he said something like ‘huwag na nating barayan ang utang ng bayan!’ That was hilarious! Were the delegates of the IMF, WB, ADB present?

    • ChinoF says:

      Sounds like a leftie. An idiotic proclamation indeed.

    • Jon Abaca says:

      So… next time sh*t hits the fan economically, we can’t borrow money?

      Dirty communist!

      Looking inward doesn’t do any good. China and Japan tried it hundreds of years ago, and they failed miserably.

  12. ricelander says:

    hey benign organism, you are unduly misrepresenting the philosophy behind, idiot!

    “This Simbol(Yin-Yang) represents the ancient Chinese understanding of how things work. The outer circle represents “everything”, while the black and white shapes within the circle represent the interaction of two energies, called “yin” (black) and “yang” (white), which cause everything to happen. They are not completely black or white, just as things in life are not completely black or white, and they cannot exist without each other.”

    • Caloy says:

      ricelander: How freakin’ stupid do you have to be to not get what the metaphor was on this article? It’s clear as day, dumb5ss.

      • helios says:

        yun ang masama eh… lakas ng loob na tawaging idiot ang author… sya tuloy ang nagmukhang idiot….

    • ChinoF says:

      I don’t think Benigs is that insulting. I mean, how many people are misrepresenting yin and yang worse than he is? Just let him have his artistic license for now. People will know the real yin and yang if you teach it anyway.

      In a way, you can say that Aquino completes a cycle. After ditching Erap in favor of GMA, everyone hates GMA, so they take Aquino… who fills the same character type as Erap.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daaaang

        … ay sus ginoo…

        … FLIPS/FLIPFLAMS, in full display of kagung gungan…

        … slipping in and out of a confused dream that sometimes seemed like memories, sometimes like fantasies…

    • Shaddap says:

      Yin represents masculinity, and Yang represents femininity.

      Erap is Yin because Erap was pa-macho effect. Noynoy is Yang because he is a wimpy-wuss.

  13. red says:

    lisud kaayo sab-ton…. hagbong biya ko sa Pilipino… hehehe….

  14. ulong pare says:

    … daang

    … a new chapter of flipland history…

    … but, the same noose flips put around their necks… LOL

    … tapos angal… hay naku, puro kayo gung gongs!

  15. NFA rice says:

    I am taking that speech with a grain of salt. I want results with a dash of pepper.

    • ulong pare says:

      … daaang

      … it’s gonna be a rough ride… a dash of pepper won’t cut it…

      … ‘sang tambaks na siling labuyo might help…

      … from today and on… i’m looking at mortality and wasted lives…

      … ay sus maryahosepsantaateglosantakorakotsantoerapiyot…

  16. Paolo says:

    Godspeed? How about Drop DEAD?

  17. Pugot Ulo says:

    He almost convinced me with this speech, until he choked on his own words: (Watch the video below and forward to 3:45)


    LOL, Quite prophetic.

    • Hyden Toro says:

      We may even go to the Moon, Planet Mars and Noynoy Aquino’s Wonderland! Can you beat that, Dude?

      • Jay says:

        You know if Noynoy did away with the anti-drug laws and legalized Marijuana, I may actually appreciate his 6 year term.

  18. Hyden Toro says:

    I don’t even know, if he compares to that Jueteng Lord Erap Estrada. At least, Estrada has the Charisma to the common people. Noynoy Aquino has nothing. Except the EDSA delusion, being fostered by Quiros, his personal psychopant and the Lopez Media Network, his Oligarchs partners. They are perpetuating a political Myth called EDSA.

    Future Filipino generations will look at our History. What will they say about this?

    Time now to produce results, Noynoy Aquino. We will be watching you closely. Examining every move you make; every decision you decide. They will be the guage of your performance. Our basis will be:

    -Rice and sugar self sufficiency. You must solve the food production problems.
    – Rampant graft and corruption. This is a Herculean task. But, you promised us: you will do it.
    – Hacienda Luisita being land reformed. Your being the foremost landowner of the land is abominable to us. While you pretend; you are for the poor.
    -Creation of jobs. To give opportunities to people. So that, they will not go as OFWs, selling their dignities to earn starvation wages.
    -Give solutiuon to the NPA rebellion, Muslim insurgencies, Political Warlords with private armies, etc..
    – Work with your Vice President Binay. Leadership is the ability to persuade and inspire other peoiple to work with you for a common cause. We will watch you being tested on the acid test of leadership. You are a phony. But, if you can prove to us; you are a true leader, other than your moronic EDSA followers. We can work with you.
    – We will be watching the activities of your KamagAnak Inc.; including your Oligarch Uncle Peping Conjuangco.

    Good Luck. We wish you and congratulate you.

  19. ulong pare says:

    … daaang

    … “justice for all”.. or, “just us” for all… a convenient distortion of the truth…

    … hay naku buhay…

  20. NFA rice says:

    It is irritating to read his speech. He thinks he is just another common citizen. He needs to wake up to the reality that he is President. He claims to be persecuted. Why does feel being persecuted? How was he persecuted? He appeared on the political radar only recently, when his mother died, and now he feels persecuted? Shouldn’t he listen to people that he failed to convince? Hey Mr. President, we are also citizens of the Republic . I pay taxes, feed a few Filipinos, and send some to school. I do them with gusto. I see them not as my calvary, but a challenge. Please cut the drama Mr. President. I don’t want a drama queen for president.

    I, like other Filipinos, await the next six months to see whether you are up to the task. I am not expecting significant results by the end of this year, but that time is enough to judge the way you will interact with your cabinet, Congress, armed forces, and with other international leaders.

    You may be intellectually challenged. I heard that you are bogo (bobo). I would like you to use the bit of intelligence left in you and do not pander to celebrities and kamag-anaks. If you do that I would give your presidency passing marks even if there are no tangible results.

    • Hyden Toro says:

      Depression is a Mental Illness that can return with vengance; if the Patient is stressed. Persecution Complex is one of the symptoms. Maybe, he needs some Prozac? Who knows..,.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … too late for prozac…

        … reality ‘bakwet (has moved) somewhere else…

      • NFA rice says:

        Reality found the climate stiflingly hot, uncomfortably humid, the air putrid, food laden with heart-attack inducing cholesterol, suffered diabetes from eating too much rice, and chased out by Emperor Melodrama.

  21. ulong pare says:

    … daaang

    … one must think like a hero to behave like a merely decent human being… prez abnoy is NOT!

    … well, prez abnoy will perform in the theater of the absurd… we’ll see the box office result…

  22. boombox says:

    Noynoy Speech…

    TL;DL (didn’t listen..)

    • ulong pare says:

      … daang

      … made ‘sang tambaks na ninoys selling penoy/balut, yellow umbrella, and prez abnoy dildo/doll…

      … hay naku, kumita na naman ang aking mga basureros…

      … ulong’s rallyistas y demonstaters, inc is gearing up for impeachment rallies… P450/day if you reserve early… P500/day regular charges…

  23. ulong pare says:

    … daang

    … hey y’all prez abnoy haters: here’s da deal…

    … i’ll contact my hook-up/kamag-anak at the palasyo de gung gong and will recommend to him/her to change Republika ng Pilipinas to PNoy Republic… para tgas-tt ang mga gung gongs… bwi hi hi hi pwi!

    … ssince Manila erpot had been changed to his papa’s; flip pesos carry his papa’s foto; ate corakot is all over my shanty’s altar/dasalan… rebultos ni santa corakot y santo ninoy all over flipland…

    … and every where i point my thingy, i see yellow… so might as well go all the way…

    … o hayan, iyot tayong lahat…

  24. Dee says:

    I think there’s too much pessimism here. He’s just been inaugurated. He hasn’t really done anything but give traditional emo speeches to attract the masses, but that’s part of politics. Like what someone here said, speeches are nothing. But although we have a pretty good reason to doubt his ability, I think it’s too early to say Philippines is a hopeless case. Give him the first 100 days, at least. I think if there’s anything good that the Aquino presidency is bringing to the country is its ability to unite people and give Filipinos hope (at least those 40% of voters). I want to think that those Filipinos who voted for him, admire him and respect him will actually make an effort to change for the better in their own little ways (at least for some months or weeks). And then when these people go back to their traditional walang disiplina lives, and Noynoy has proven himself to be truly incompetent and ineffective, then you can work hard to oust him, and get a real leader to step in and do some serious work. But until then, I think we should just hope he does bring some positive contributions and not further destroy the already messed up system. You might ask why waste time with Noynoy as the president. Well, Filipinos have spoken and they want Noynoy, so you all just have to deal with it and hope he doesn’t screw up or that he screws up so fast he’ll be ousted right away and you’ll get a better President . 🙂

    • Miriam Quiamco says:

      Didn’t really read the entire speech, but I could tell it was full of self-absorption and persecution complex type of rhetoric. Since the Pinoys are suckers for this type of melodrama, then, I reckon, it was a big hit, and plus the setting was full of nostalgic props, yellow, images of the dead and the celebrity morons, good thing Binay was there to complete the suspense, arriving in some contrived jeepney, soooo Pinoy style, at my age, I am sooo over that kind of emotional politics which has not brought strong institutions to the country 23 years after the dictatorship ended. Ah, come to think of it, Marcos was in power for what, 20 years, and we have only been a free country for 23 years, the first woman president proved to be an inutile, but emo-politics of course portrays her as a heroine, missed a great opportunity to right a lot of social wrongs in the country, still a land of massacre after the Mendiola massacre, luckily the second woman-president proved to be someone with brains and has at least shown the world, the country is capable of achieving some goals, not all-sweeping nation-building goals, but of pursuing the fundamentals of establishing a strong economy, now, that is my leader. I like Arroyo’s style much better, stoic, dignified and defiant. What a strength of character she has shown amidst the politics of hate that is part of emo-political culture in the country. And a yellow journalist in one GMA TV article, mind you, this is not from ABS-CBN would like to reduce GMA’s term to years of decline and corruption. What a stupid idiot!!!!

      Meanwhile, I have been watching Jose Rizal II’s videos, and I took notice of one video of the vision of the Hanoi government’s great plan for the country. I am sure that video is broadcast in the mass media as a rallying and inspiring vision for the whole country to work for. The mass media over there is a true voice of unity for progress and hope. Now, Aquino is going to inspire the 40% of Filipinos who voted for him over what, over his overrated family name?

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … ay sus ginoo… miriam…

        … if ate glo was/is “all that, then:

        >>> the flips (ijits, ‘toopids, ignos) should have embraced her…

        >>> other heads of state should have applauded her accomplishments…

        >>> international financiers should have poured billion$ in investement…

        >>> international watchdogs should have given her an outstanding mark during her reign…

        >>> echatstera, etc..

        … all she got was smirks from stalking da debonaire obama for a kodakan/photo ops… :mrgreen:

      • Miriam Quiamco says:

        I don’t know about you, but I am not a subscriber to the politics of hate that the yellow campaign represented, courtesy of our moronic media institution, I give credit where credit is due, and international institutions like the U.N. has recognized GMA’s achievements. She does have achievements and they are commendable, unlike what the mass media in the Philippines would like you to believe. I now see you are Gloria hater.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … i hate flips/flipflams…from padre damasos to ladrones garapales to every crooks in between… i am an equal opportunity hater…

        … i see things as is… no embellishment… and, what i see in flipland is not what you all paint it to be…

        … some things are necessary evils… some things are more evil than necessary…

    • lee says:


      Well said. GMA may have her faults but I think she portrayed or projected a strong figure. While she may not have been able to uplift the nation from poverty, she has some notable accomplishments as a President. I disliked NoyNoy’s speech because it was simply what his supporters wanted to hear. It was a hate filled speech and I wished he could have just skipped the rhetoric and went straight to lambasting GMA just like his supporters booed her as she was taking her leave.

      If NoyNoy is this country’s Obama, then he better get it in his head that blaming the previous administration can only get you so far.

      NoyNoy’s selling point is all about sentimentality but once he is unable to deliver results then let’s see how the Aquino name will fare after his administration.

      I may be pessimistic about NoyNoy’s chances but for the good of the country, I do wish that he won’t screw this one up as bad as I think he will.

    • ChinoF says:

      It’s not really the country that’s a hopeless case. It’s the effort to improve it. It gets derailed each time by choosing the wrong candidate, by letting media put stupid things in their heads, and by not questioning the culture, among other things. Any chance for charter change gets derailed because of the idiocies being spouting out by propaganda machines. We’re all working to mythbust and proclaim the truth here in AP.

      Besides, if we really believed the country was a hopeless case, we wouldn’t even bother setting up AP.

      • ulong pare says:

        … daaang

        … i love the country, hate the system… especially when the flip majority are gung gong… 👿


      • ChinoF says:

        Dang, pare, kung puede ma-nyuk ang system ng ganung kadali… pinoprotektahan kasi ng mga gunggongs… hehehe

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … ay sus ginoo, chin

        … since flipland is ‘merka’s carbon copy (a baaaaad copy at that), wonder what’s gonna happen if a traposakal is gunned down?… ate glo’s 50cc honda squad comes in handy…

        … ‘merka has half a dozen prez ang itinumba by their own people (NRA)… tsekwas put their fellow politburat oooopsie politburo on firing squads… ruskies, did the same…

        … siguro titi-no ang mga burat…

        … hmmm, just a thought… :mrgreen:

    • Jay says:


      Your view of how the government should work is still twisted, hence why those who vote or support noynoy deserve him as their leader. EDSA was overrated, especially more so after the first one and ousting a bad leader out of their crappy absolutely solves NOTHING. And AP has long discussed things that Noynoy should do to be able to keep his job because there is absolutely no way he can pull an administration like GMA’s unscathed of his pride, honor and integrity. Or whatever is left of it.

      If noynoy screws up the stability that GMA fought 9 years to keep, then the nation finally learns accountability! The top man blames the little people who voted him in and the little people blames the top man who can’t sell those promises they so desired to buy! Its a perfect scenario for learning because if nobody does, the country do it all over again until they start liking the taste of their own vomit. Because its downright SICKENING!

      Oh and when AP declares the I told you so, they don’t feel vindictive about it at all. Because they knew long ago that everybody in the country lost when Noynoy won the election.

      I may be one of the few but I’m looking forward for some serious schadenfreude the 6 years coming up. You may think of me as sick but out there is a cold, cold world. So bundle up 😈

  25. Marcing Pin says:

    I wonder what Jose Ramos-Horta thinking during Abnoy’s inaugural speech?.. or the majority of the foreign dignitaries… REGRET?

    Kailangan din yang mag-Tagalog kasi yung mga bumoto sa kanya hindi maka-intindi ng Ingles 🙄 …

    • ChinoF says:

      I think that’s a better observation than mine. The language delivered in can reflect the audience of the speech. If they mostly don’t understand English, well…. you know. 🙄

      • ulong pare says:

        … daaang

        … y’all make me sick…

        … watch the UN in action…

        … ‘sang tambaks ang non inles speakers… yet they represent their country in more ways than one…

        … i don’t see the frenchies spoklong in inles… either the ruskies… or sakangs… or tsekwas…

        … and, flipland is trash compared to these countries…

        … wake up flips… REPRESENT! (me, doing the egot thingy) :mrgreen:

      • BongV says:

        dang… it’s not fair.. the speech was only in tagalog… my dialects were not REPRESENTED.. bisdak, ranao, karay-a, chabacano, bagobo, ka-agan, adindanao, manobo, ata, b’laan

        ang lagay e, tangalog lang ba ang pilipino – e kung ganyan ang usapan… i want my republic of mindanao… and my posse of bangsamorons
        eh ba’t hahayaan ko pa si ampatuan – eh di ang clan ko na lang.. ,as benevolent kami at di gaanong mamamatay tao 😆

        kanya kanya tayo ng hardening there, mag-aaral kami ng englitscheze 😛

      • ulong pare says:

        … daang

        … basic tangalog, dlpt 3/3 rel IV, rosetta stone online, $29.95…

        … for republic of minda citizen, 10% discount… with a sexy gurl on the side, libre… 😳

  26. sarcasmgasm says:

    to cut the story short:
    protectionism is good for them as they are oligarchs. no free market means over regulation. over regulation leads to monopoly. in order for protectionism to work, you need red tapes which is contradictory to what zombies think(do they even think?).

    in practical capitalism, you need to have a competitive manpower which means cheap labor, no red tapes and extensive use of softpower in using bilateral/multilateral agreements and that’s in person.

    Machiavelli once said, “for men change their rulers willingly, hoping to better themselves, and this ‘hope’ induces them to take up arms against him who rules: wherein they are deceived, because afterwards they find by experience they have gone from bad to worse”

  27. Barry Boy says:

    I didn’t vote for him. I stand by my decision. Will he make a difference? Will he actually alleviate poverty? Will he actually instill discipline in most of the people? Will the red tape in LTO, Customs, and other government agencies sink deeply? I don’t think so. But if he proves me wrong after 6 years, then it’s a loss that I’ll gladly accept. I didn’t vote for him due to the following reasons :

    These still hold true.

    • ChinoF says:

      Yup, the reasons you cited still hold. Especially no. 5. Most of us here at AP never voted for Aquino. There were a lot of better candidates. Especially Gordon. 😛
      When will people ever learn.

  28. ulong pare says:

    … daaang

    … FYI for dialect haters aka wannabe ‘merkan inles lovers: :mrgreen:

    … we are looking for tagalog/tausug/chavacano linguists…


    Major Duties:
    Serves as the Foreign Language Program Manager of a major program at
    the Dallas Field Office. This dynamic and diverse program impacts and addresses major operational and administrative areas within the Foreign Language Program relative to FBI linguists and the work they render. Linguists may include Special Agents, Language Specialists, Foreign Language Program Monitors/Analysts, Translators, Language Monitor/Analysts, and the like. Functional areas include, but are not limited to, operations, training, standardization, quality control, administration, funded staffing level, outreach, liaison, budget, and language incentive programs affecting said personnel. Maintains and identifies the need for a growing number of linguists which augment the Language Specialist staff and provides services in emergency situations. Analyzes data to provide innovative approaches to identify new language sources and trends, and produces related reports. This position may serve the FBIHQ and Field, however, FBIHQ Program Manager Approval is required before recruitment and activation.

    so, derpor mga flip/flipflams…. don’t be shy naman nmannnn namannnn :mrgreen:

    • BongV says:

      dang.. kailangan ata ng security clearance yan – C2?

      • ulong pare says:

        … daaang

        … TS/SCI… SSBI based…

        … any sexy gurl who’s interested, call me… i’ll do the cavity search oooopsie the investigation… :mrgreen:

        … and, for the rest of you uglypayans, you harden der (manigas kayo)…

  29. Caloy says:

    “Kayo ba ay minsan ring nalimutan ng pamahalaang inyong iniluklok sa puwesto? Ako rin. Kayo ba ay nagtiis na sa trapiko para lamang masingitan ng isang naghahari-hariang de-wangwang sa kalsada? Ako rin. Kayo ba ay sawang-sawa na sa pamahalaang sa halip na magsilbi sa taumbayan ay kailangan pa nila itong pagpasensiyahan at tiisin? Ako rin….”

    “Ngayon, sa araw na ito — dito magwawakas ang pamumunong manhid sa mga daing ng taumbayan.”

    Kung di ba naman ‘sang gago’t kalahati aasta ba ‘yan ng ganyan?

    Eh bahagi siya ng gobyerno ah? Kasama siya sa walang pakinabang sa mga mamamayan, NAKAUPONG SENADOR na walang batas na naipasa PERO SUMWELDO, MAY PORK PA.

    Isang ipokrito talaga.

    At iyang bawal na ang wangwang na papogi ni Noynoy walang kwenta. Kanina lang hapon eh, there was this burial procession using a noisy wangwang heading for North Cemetery near Chinese General Hospital. The vehicles were marked as Manila City Hall vehicles, some with names marked on them like something-“Viceo” and “Rod ‘Ninong’ Lacsamana” were on the convoy. And they weren’t going at a traditionally slow pace dahil none of the mourners were on foot. O ayan, wangwang pa lang yan.

    Kaya hindi ako naniniwala sa mga mga hollow na pangako ni Noynoy. Ginagawa niya lang tayong tanga.

    Kung sa bagay, nagkalat talaga ang bobo’t tanga sa Pilipinas, lalo na doon sa inaugural.

    • ChinoF says:

      Addressing the wang wang is addressing the icing on the cake – the easiest thing to do. Thing is, wang-wang is part of the public perception of corruption – nagsisingitan sa pila. Problem is, it doesn’t address the core problem. Also, it’s not always corruption to use wang-wangs! Removing wang-wangs is just a feel-good makeshift solution, just to make the people feel better, kuno. Also, wang-wang lang ang pinatigil, eh paano ang mga napakamaingay mag-videoke? Parang pakitang tao lang ito na, “I’m doing something against corruption.” But it’s not the right kind of doing! Ipokrito nga.

      • mel says:

        Opportunist is PNoy to me. He ran for the Presidency knowing that he will win because of his name and NOT because of his true will and competence for the job!

        The people who are abusing the wang-wang are mostly those in the government. He could have just issued a Memo to all government offices to enforce discipline.

        Refusing to use his siren, he comes late to his appointments. The Pinoy Time is here again!

      • Parallax says:

        being noynoy means always having AN EXCUSE for every poorly thought out declaration and decision. it cannot be simpler.

  30. Joe America says:


    I don’t consider you a part of the name-calling or lunatic witch-hunting crowd, actually. Though you may have called the riot room to order by launching Get Real. You have appended the term “bozo” to Mr. Aquino and explained why the term fits. As you define it, it fits. That is different than laying a name on someone that does not fit and is only meant to diminish the person making the opposing argument, not counter the argument itself. Actually, as your friend Ding would say, your commentary is “spot on”. (heh heh, wheeee oooo!)

    Bong V,

    Thanks for the wonderful history. I have archived this blog in my “Education” file folder.

  31. Joe America says:

    This is a superb set of discussions. You don’t find this shtick on FV these days. I think quality of mind means a lot, and passion for this and that, and avoiding insults.

    ChinoF, you da man.

  32. Tessie Mora says:

    For me, the language is not really what mattered most. We are adept at both English and Tagalog. Although some made this an issue. What is important to me is whether he could carry his promises embodied in that speech which he didn’t write and whether it had no hint of EDSA or mama and papa. But there they were. He still hasn’t come into his own. He will still mention his mother and father in all his speeches and EDSA ad nauseum. He is more concerned with impressing his dead parents than the Filipinos who are alive and need jobs and livelihood programs and the out of school youth. Now, where will that lead us? If he keeps looking at the past, keep mentioning his dead parents, keep reliving EDSA, we’re going nowhere. And NOWHERE is the road to perdition.

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